This work explains the aims and purpose of terrorism and many issues in achieving a broad-based strategy against terrorism. What we all fear as a global community is that terrorists seek to force, through the use of fear, the adoption of measures of a police state. One has to bear in mind, in devising such policy and tactics, the crisis management capability; the involvement of the state in countering state sponsored terrorism; the balance between media coverage and any censorship; the use of the military; the policy of negotiating, if at all, with terrorists, and their legal status and international response. Some of the root causes of the problem of terrorism seem too intractable for many countries to face; for example, the challenges of poverty, bribery and corruption, and the absence of a binding definition of terrorism in international law. The economic gap between the global North and South continues to widen; and the growth of the Third World gives rise to economic hopelessness.
There are many differing approaches to educating people about terrorism: dissertations, analytical and comparative studies, and appraisals of the political and economic responses to terroristic violence. To help us understand the subject there are training and information manuals, research monographs, databases, bibliographies, encyclopaedias and dictionaries. In this dictionary I have chosen examples, ideas, groups, people and events that epitomise the whole issue, given the constraints on the length of the work. It is a sad reflection that many tomes are needed to give a full and comprehensive analysis of a phenomenon that has been with us in varied forms, terms and guises throughout history.
As the book goes to print at the dawn of the twenty-first century, the world has witnessed a new type of transnational terrorist, skilled in the use of transnational communications and financial returns as a means of co-ordinating the activities of dispersed followers who have made no promises to any state and have no territorial desires. Governments are very concerned that they are being increasingly bypassed by terrorists.
The first edition was referred to as an encyclopaedia, but the changes made in this second edition have moved the author to change the title to that of dictionary, especially as there are so many different definitions and an ever increasing variation of terminology of different types of terrorism. The work can be viewed as a constant reference and bulky topics such as September 11, 2001 and the different aspects of terrorism can be viewed under the headings September 11 and Terror and Terrorism. Detailed cross-referencing takes the reader to various parts of the book. After most entries there are References and Further Reading, and at the back of the book a selection of website addresses from where further information can be gleaned. Cross-referencing proves that terrorism crosses many academic boundaries, and this is enhanced by a conceptual map which helps apply a mental/philosophical appraisal across the topics of the entries. Some entries have been updated since May 2003 at proof stage.
This work will be of use to those involved in academia, the military, government, business and law enforcement. A single entry cannot inform the reader of all there is to know about its subject matter because it is related to other entries. To know something about hostages, one has to be aware of