In October 2002 more than 180 people were killed and over 300 injured in a bombing outside a packed tourist bar in Bali. Over thirty of the dead were British and most of the remainder Australian. A chief suspect in the attack confessed on live television in February 2003 to his role as a bomb-maker. Ali Imron said that he was proud of his work. He admitted he had links with the militant Muslim cleric, Abu Bakar Bashir, the alleged leader of Jemaah Islamiya. Another 29 suspected members have been arrested. Al Qaeda and local Islamic groups were blamed. One of these is the main Indonesian terror group Jamaah Islamiya, led by the academic cleric Abu Bakar Bashir. The group wishes to create an Islamic super-state comprising of Malaysia, Indonesia and the Southern Philippines . In December 2001 they plotted to blow up targets of Western interest in Singapore. They are a threat to Western tourists and expatriates in the region. The other group is Lashkar Jihad led by Ja'far Umar Thalib, whose goal is to expel Christians from the region. They have tried to expel Christians from the Moluccas and have killed more than 6,000 people and forced around a million to leave their homes. Thalib fought alongside Osama Bin Laden in Afghanistan and he supported the September 11 attacks. Membership numbers over 10,000 and they are active in SE Asia. They are a real danger to all Christians in the country.
They developed plans in 1997 to target American interests in Singapore, and most members were trained in Al Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan and the Jemaah Islamiya have received funding from Al Qaeda. Currently there are about 600 members (Griset and Mahan, 2003:354).
See also: September 11.
Political violence is a continual aspect of Spain's historical development. Francoism itself emerged as a result of the Civil War in Spain (1936-39). Francoism was in its turn soon attacked by the Communist guerrilla fighters of the maquis. Sporadic actions either of an anarchist character or of groups like DRIL (Iberian Revolutionary Directorate of Liberation) were also points of violent resistance to the dictatorship of General Franco. But it was in 1959 that Euskadi ta Askatasuna (ETA), or Basque Fatherland and Freedom, which would become the fatal protagonist of terrorism during the political transition, first began its activities on a small scale. The French equivalent is Iparretarrak, formed in 1973. Although it became violent in 1976, its acts of terrorism have been few and far between. Emerging from a generational changeover in Basque nationalism and carrying out a radical redefining of this