These occurred on 7 August 1998 at the US Embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. The Americans indicted Osama Bin Laden and fourteen others for the attack. Since early-1998 he had been 'planning to terrorise the enemies of God' by bombing. This was certainly achieved in that year by the Al Qaeda members. A truck bomb exploded in Kenya killing 213 people and injuring over 4,500, while in Tanzania 11 were killed and 85 injured (Mylroie, 2001).
The Americans made retaliatory strikes on the El Shifa Pharmaceutical Plant in Khartoum, Jordan (which the USA believed had the capability to manufacture VX Nerve Gas). Raids were also made on Bin Laden's positions in Afghanistan but some bombs fell in Pakistan. There was no proof of state-sponsorship but links could be established with Bin Laden's threats and the crisis over weapons inspection in Iraq and the on-the-ground preparations for bombing loose networks of Muslim extremists had come together in a very effective manner, and proved that any US interests anywhere in the world could be targeted. Basically the role of states is usurped by shadowy entities (Mylroie, 2001).
Following the April 1974 revolution in Portugal, several political groups manoeuvred for power in the small Portuguese colony of East Timor. After a short civil war, the left-wing Frente Revolucionária Timorense de Libertação e Independência (FRETILIN) proclaimed independence on 28 November 1975.
On 7 December, East Timor was invaded by Indonesian troops who expelled Fretilin from the capital, Dili. Guerrilla fighting continued, even though East Timor was formally annexed by Indonesia on 14 August 1976, and Fretilin was able to survive repeated Indonesian offensives. Negotiations took place between FRETILIN and the Indonesian authorities in March 1983, but fighting was renewed in August 1983, following the ambush of a group of Indonesian soldiers.
Casualty figures on both sides are unknown. Indonesia has long claimed that resistance to its occupation is insignificant while the East Timorese claim that a 'hot' war is under way between Indonesian regulars and Fretilin guerrillas.
Indonesia consistently feared that a successful independent government in a small state in the midst of its far-flung island territory would set an example for parts of the country beset by secessionist rumblings.
Indonesia's denial of strong resistance from the East Timorese was challenged by photos and tape recordings smuggled out by guerrillas, which showed that the ceasefire took place in 1983. Fretilin forces were organised into companies and operated in ten military zones in the central and