Understanding Consumer Decision Making: The Means-End Approach to Marketing and Advertising Strategy

By Thomas J. Reynolds; Jerry C. Olson | Go to book overview
3. Identify specific strategies and tactics based on the information developed in the first two steps, as we did with the previous Justifier segment.
4. Assess and refine the identified tactics and concepts through market research. Further cost — benefit measures of the strategic tactics needed for each segment can provide additional guidance to management.
5. Test the tactics by launching them in pilot markets and measuring customer response.

These five steps recognize that marketing activities are part of a behavioral process that focuses on the consumer. Therefore, consumer responses and reactions must be included explicitly at both the initial, customer-understanding stage of the process and at the final, communication assessment stage. Also, this process recognizes that the best test of marketing activity effectiveness is in the marketplace. The main premise of segmentation is that unless different marketing mixes are to be offered to different segments, segmentation provides no additional benefit to management.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We would like to thank Dwight Smith and Steven J. Westberg for many helpful contributions in preparation of this manuscript.


REFERENCES

Gutman, J. (1982). A means-end chain model based on consumer categorization processes. Journal of Marketing, 46 (2), 60–72.

Gutman, J., & Reynolds, T. J. (1979). An investigation of the levels of cognitive abstraction utilized by consumers in product differentiation. In J. Eighmey (Ed.), Attitude research under the sun (pp. 128–151). Chicago: American Marketing Association.

Olson, J. C., & Reynolds, T. J. (1983). Understanding consumers' cognitive structures: Implications for advertising strategy. In L. Percy and A. Woodside (Eds.), Advertising and consumer psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 77–90). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1986). Communication and persuasion: Central and peripheral routes to attitude change. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Reynolds, T. J., & Gutman, J. (1984). Advertising is image management. Journal of Advertising Research, 24 (1), 27–36.

Reynolds, T. J., & Gutman, J. (1988). Laddering theory, method, analysis, and interpretation. Journal of Advertising Research, 28 (1), 11–31.

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