A Short History of the Papacy in the Middle Ages

By Walter Ullmann | Go to book overview

12

Avignon, Rome and Constance

THE VIOLENCE OF the conflict of the papacy with France and the eventual use of force against the pope personally, produced a traumatic effect in papal quarters. The shock was perhaps salutary. A week after Boniface's death a successor was chosen (Benedict XI). The papacy now entered a period which could suitably be headed: appeasement of France. Most of the measures decreed by Boniface against Philip were revoked and even the Colonna cardinals were released from excommunication, though not immediately restored to the College of Cardinals. Among the new cardinals created by Benedict XI in June 1304 was the English Dominican-General Walter Winterbourne who after the death of the pope in July 1304 was to play some role in the long and protracted conclave deliberating on a suitable successor: he had not, of course, had anything to do with the Bonifacian policy nor could he, as an Englishman, be accused of too great a leaning towards France. In short he was an outsider and 'an honest broker' to repair the damage that had been inflicted on the institution. Walter Winterbourne was indeed put up as a candidate after joining the conclave at Perugia in November 1304, but did not receive the required two-thirds majority. In the event, on 5 June 1305, the archbishop of Bordeaux was chosen by 10 out of 15 cardinals. In the circumstances this was a wise choice. Clement V was French by upbringing and outlook, but English as a subject of Edward I, and never having been a member of the curia, he was not in any way tainted as a partisan.

A deep shadow hung over the papacy. The threatened trial and exhumation of Boniface VIII was one of the most obstinately pursued aims of the French. It was a threat that Philip was resolved to make real, and he had a great deal of genuine and less genuine evidence collected against his dead enemy. But the papacy was equally adamant, even if only to avoid creating a

-279-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
A Short History of the Papacy in the Middle Ages
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface to the Reprint vi
  • Preface vii
  • Introduction x
  • 1 - The Papacy in the Late Roman Empire 4
  • 2 - The Papal Conflict with the Imperial Government 28
  • 3 - The Papacy and the Conversion of England 51
  • 4 - The Western Orientation of the Papacy 71
  • 5 - The Papacy and Latin Europe 91
  • 6 - The German Monarchy and the Papacy 116
  • 7 - The Gregorian Age 142
  • 8 - Tensions and Conflicts 173
  • 9 - The Zenith of the Medieval Papacy 201
  • 10 - Central Government and the Papal Curia 227
  • 11 - Gradual Decline of Papal Authority 251
  • 12 - Avignon, Rome and Constance 279
  • 13 - The Last Phase of the Medieval Papacy 306
  • Abbreviations 333
  • Bibliographical Notes 337
  • Appendix 367
  • List of Medieval Popes 372
  • Index 377
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 393

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.