11th Century AD
Lithuania first mentioned in chronicles.
The Pope summoned a crusade to convert the Baltic pagans to Christianity. The Teutonic Order of Knights was the Church's main instrument.
Reign of Mindaugas, who unified the Lithuanian tribes in defence against the Teutonic Order.
Reign of Grand Duke Gediminas; vigorous defence against the Teutonic Order combined with territorial expansion into Russian lands.
Beginnings of the construction of Vilnius by Gediminas.
Marriage of Grand Duke Jogaila to Queen Jadwiga of Poland: beginnings of Lithuania's conversion to Christianity as a result.
Reign of Grand Duke Vytautas: under him Lithuania achieved its greatest power and widest territorial extent, from the Baltic to the Black Sea.
The Lithuanians and Poles inflict crushing defeat on the Teutonic Order at Zalgiris (Grunwald, Tannenberg).
Treaty of Lublin between Poland and Lithuania establishes the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the face of the growing challenge of Moscow.
Polish made the official language of the Commonwealth.
Life of Kristijonas Donelaitis, one of the most celebrated Lithuanian poets.
Third Partition of Poland, leading to the incorporation of Lithuania in the Russian Empire.
Revolt against Russian rule begins the process of intense Russification.
University of Vilna (Vilnius) closed down.
Emancipation of Lithuanian peasantry.
Second major revolt against Russia.
Intense opposition by Lithuanians to the policy of Russification: book smuggling from Lithuania Minor (in East Prussia) into Lithuania to circumvent the ban on books in the Latin script.
Meeting of Lithuanian Assembly in Vilnius accompanying the revolution in Russia.
Death of M.K. Ciurlionis, Lithuania's greatest painter and a distinguished composer.
First World War begins.
Occupation of Lithuania by the German Army.
On 16 February Lithuania declared its independence, despite German obstruction, after Russia withdrew from the war.
The Soviet-Lithuanian Peace Treaty signed.
The Vilnius region seized by Polish General Zeligowski.
Major land reforms initiated.
Foundation of a university in Kaunas, which became the Vytautas Magnus University in 1930.
LITHUANIA: STEPPING WESTWARD