Helen Sykes, David Yencken, John Fien and Florence Choo
In this chapter we report the findings from the questionnaire surveys and from the focus group discussions in different countries. The chapter summarizes the findings from these two groups of studies. The approach to the surveys and studies was described in Chapter 2.
Questionnaire surveys were carried out in eleven different cities in nine different countries. They were Melbourne and Brisbane in Australia; Denpasar in Bali; Bandar Seri Begawan in Brunei; Hong Kong and Guangzhou in South China, Bangalore in India; Tokyo in Japan; Hamilton in New Zealand; Singapore; and Hat Yai in Thailand.
While the questionnaire, the sampling method and the techniques for translation of the questionnaire were developed in a rigorous way, as was discussed in Chapter 3, there are some qualifications that need to be made about the surveys. First, two questions were adjusted in two countries to suit local conditions. These were the questions related to national goals for each country and the questions related to perceived environmental problems of the country and the world. Any differences in the questions asked are noted below. Second, the surveys were carried out over a three-year period between 1996 and 1998. Because the surveys were not all carried out at the same time, the answers to some questions are bound to reflect different cultural settings and changes in media reporting of issues. These qualifications particularly apply to any topical questions, such as the question on national goals for the country concerned. Comparisons for these questions have therefore to be treated with care.
Most of the questions were, however, concerned with underlying beliefs, feelings, awareness, knowledge and past behaviour, all of which we believe it is valid to compare, despite the differences in the time of the survey. The sample sizes for each city and the time of the surveys are shown in Table 9.1.
In all the tables in this chapter, data are shown under the country rather than the city for easy reference, except where surveys have been carried