Fifty Major Thinkers on Education: From Confucius to Dewey

By Joy A. Palmer; Liora Bresler et al. | Go to book overview

Further reading

There is no reliable evidence to point to the work written by Confucius himself. Readers could consult the following to learn more about Confucius' thoughts in general and his educational idea and practice in particular.


c
Cheng, M., A Study of the Philosophy of Education of Confucius and a Comparison of the Educational Philosophies of Confucius and John Dewey, Laramie, Wyoming: University of Wyoming, 1952.

h
Huang, C., The Analects of Confucius (Lun Yu). A Literal Translation with an Introduction and Notes, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.

m
Mayer, F., 'Confucius,' in The Great Teachers, New York: The Citadel Press, pp. 35-43, 1976.

t
Tong, K.M., Educational Ideas of Confucius, Taipei: Youth Book Store, 1970.

z
Zhu, W., 'Confucius and Traditional Chinese Education: An Assessment,' in R. Hayhoe (ed.), Education and Modernization: The Chinese Experience, Oxford: Pergamon Press, pp. 3-21, 1992.

JIANPING SHEN


SOCRATES 469-399 BCE

The unexamined life is not worth living for a human being.

These words are spoken by Socrates in Plato's Apology,1 a largely fictional account of his speeches at the trial that led to his conviction and execution. We have no guarantee that Socrates actually uttered these words, or any others-or indeed that he thought anything in particular, since he wrote nothing himself, and we are forced to rely on numerous and often conflicting reports about him by those who did write: people like Plato, or Xenophon (to name what are probably our two most voluminous contemporary 'authorities'). But the eleven words quoted-six in Plato's original Greek-form an essential part of one highly plausible account of Socrates' thinking which we can put together, mainly from Plato's works. 2 Since this is an account that makes Socrates a particularly interesting figure from the point of view of educational theory-since, that is, it would give him a theory of outstanding interest for educationalists-there would be good reason for considering it in the context of the present volume even if it turned out that the real Socrates had no such theory at all (why prefer to discuss a duller person than a more brilliant theory)? In any case, since there is hardly any chance of a definitive solution to 'the problem of Socrates', as it is sometimes called, short of his returning from the dead, what will be presented here may as well represent what he stood for (and I believe that there are good, if less than conclusive, arguments for supposing that it was). 3

Here are the main things we appear to know about the historical Socrates. Born in Athens, son of Sophroniscus-probably a stonemason-and Phaenaretê-a midwife-he served with great distinction as a heavy-armed infantryman on several campaigns, but never held any command; he generally avoided ordinary political involvement, but did serve on the executive committee of the democratic Council, a committee which also

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Fifty Major Thinkers on Education: From Confucius to Dewey
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Chronological List of Contents v
  • Alphabetical List of Contents viii
  • Preface xiii
  • Confucius 551-479 Bce 1
  • Further Reading 5
  • Notes 9
  • Books on Aristotle''s Educational Ideas 20
  • Saint Augustine 354-430 25
  • John Wesley 1703-91 50
  • Kant''s Major Writings 64
  • Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 1770-1831 84
  • John Henry Newman 1801-90 100
  • Herbert Spencer 1820-1903 120
  • Thomas Henry Huxley 1825-95 128
  • Further Reading 146
  • Alfred Binet 1857-1911 160
  • Émile Durkheim 1858-1917 165
  • Addams'' Major Writings 187
  • Notes 191
  • Harvard (1924-39) 205
  • Émile Jaques-Dalcroze 1865-1950 206
  • Martin Buber 1878-1965 239
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