If, as argued by Klerks and Stelfox in Part II, it is accepted that responses to TOC need to be questioned in terms of their sensitivity to the specific social contexts in which they are implemented, then qualitative case study research has much to offer policy change and learning. The contributions to Part III discuss the findings of case study research into European Union responses to the perceived threat from organised criminality originating in Central and Eastern European (CEE) states.
The chapters by Rawlinson and Bogusz and King argue that the very notion of TOC has been defined by the European Union in relation to the key objective of the third pillar of the Treaty of European Union, on Justice and Home Affairs, which calls for the creation of a 'high level of safety within an area of freedom, security and justice'. It is clear from the panoply of action plans, directives and other policy instruments developed by the European Union over the past decade that organised criminality originating in CEE states is regarded as a principle threat to this objective (see also Chapter 2 by Elvins in Part I). As such, the EU has made improvements in the policing and judicial capacity of CEE states a key criterion for their accession to the EU. Specifically, the Commission of the EU has identified the need for improvements in mutual judicial assistance, joint policing operations, greater law enforcement and judicial cooperation in the fight against organised crime and in tackling money laundering, terrorism and transnational offences. The basic instrument for compelling candidate states for accession to comply with these improvements is the acquis communitaire (the entire body of law to which EU member states are subject), especially those laws specified in the Justice and Home Affairs pillar. Progress in complying with the acquis is monitored by the Commission through the Regular (annual) Country Reports on each candidate state's performance which, in turn, inform bilateral Accession Partnership Agreements between the EU and these states. The Country Reports are also used to identify priority areas for action to be undertaken by candidate states and, since 1998, these have specified action on illicit drugs trafficking, illegal immigration and organised crime more generally.