Transnational Organised Crime: Perspectives on Global Security

By Adam Edwards; Peter Gill | Go to book overview

the nature, extent and origins of the problem, in the context of the EU, the chapter provided a critique of EU responses to sex trafficking with respect to the neglect of the victim in the continued focus on perpetrators and the criminalisation of unwanted immigrants. In turn, the chapter questioned the 'victimhood' of trafficked persons in light of inadequate cross-reference between, primarily, the European Commission's work on victims, in general, and its more recent focus on victims of trafficking. However, in light of encouraging developments at the legislative and practical level, from the Commission through to national police initiatives, the chapter pointed to noteworthy developments 'for' victims of sex trafficking which focus on the human rights approach to their needs. To this end, it is hoped that the chapter has provided a general introduction to some of the problems and promises of current responses, within the EU, to victims of sex trafficking as one aspect of organised criminal activities.


Notes
1
The author is in receipt of an EC-funded research fellowship and is based at the UN Office on Drugs and Crime in Vienna. Her research is examining criminal justice responses to 'vulnerable' and 'at risk' victims in the EU, including victims of sex trafficking. The opinions expressed in this chapter are those of the author and do not represent the UN.
2
For example: Council of Europe (1994) 'Final Report of the Group of Specialists on action against traffic in women and forced prostitution as violations of human rights and human dignity', Strasbourg: CDEG, European Commission (1996) Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on trafficking in women for the purposes of sexual exploitation, COM(96) 567 final, Brussels (20.11.96); European Parliament (1996) Resolution on trafficking in human beings, OJ C 32 (5.2.96).
3
See International Organisation for Migration (IOM) (1995) Trafficking and Prostitution: The Growing Exploitation of Migrant Women from Central and Eastern Europe. Geneva: IOM; plus IOM's regular news bulletins. Also Europol's (1999) General Situation Report on 'Trafficking in Human Beings'. The Hague: Europol.
4
The UN definition of 'trafficking', under the terms of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (supplementing the 2000 UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime), Article 3(a) states:

'Trafficking in persons' shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.

(A/55/383)

-171-

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Transnational Organised Crime: Perspectives on Global Security
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Figures x
  • Tables xi
  • Acknowledgements xiv
  • Introduction 1
  • References 6
  • Part I - Origins of the Concept 7
  • References 11
  • 1 - Transnational Organised Crime 13
  • 2 - Europe's Response to Transnational Organised Crime 28
  • Notes 39
  • References 40
  • 3 - Global Law Enforcement as a Protection Racket 42
  • Note 55
  • References 56
  • Part II - Measurements and Interpretations 59
  • References 64
  • 4 - Measuring Transnational Organised Crime 65
  • Note 77
  • 5 - Classify, Report and Measure 78
  • References 95
  • 6 - The Network Paradigm Applied to Criminal Organisations 97
  • References 113
  • 7 - Transnational Organised Crime 114
  • Notes 125
  • Part III - Case Studies 127
  • 8 - Bad Boys in the Baltics 131
  • Notes 141
  • 9 - Controlling Drug Trafficking in Central Europe 143
  • Note 154
  • 10 - Recognising Organised Crime's Victims 157
  • Notes 171
  • Part IV - Current and Prospective Responses 175
  • References 181
  • 11 - The Legal Regulation of Transnational Organised Crime 183
  • References 193
  • 12 - Countering the Chameleon Threat of Dirty Money 195
  • Notes 209
  • 13 - Criminal Asset-Stripping 212
  • 14 - Proteiform Criminalities 227
  • Notes 239
  • References 240
  • 15 - Organised Crime and the Conjunction of Criminal Opportunity Framework 241
  • References 262
  • 16 - After Transnational Organised Crime? 264
  • Note 279
  • Index 282
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