the nature, extent and origins of the problem, in the context of the EU, the chapter provided a critique of EU responses to sex trafficking with respect to the neglect of the victim in the continued focus on perpetrators and the criminalisation of unwanted immigrants. In turn, the chapter questioned the 'victimhood' of trafficked persons in light of inadequate cross-reference between, primarily, the European Commission's work on victims, in general, and its more recent focus on victims of trafficking. However, in light of encouraging developments at the legislative and practical level, from the Commission through to national police initiatives, the chapter pointed to noteworthy developments 'for' victims of sex trafficking which focus on the human rights approach to their needs. To this end, it is hoped that the chapter has provided a general introduction to some of the problems and promises of current responses, within the EU, to victims of sex trafficking as one aspect of organised criminal activities.
'Trafficking in persons' shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.