Transnational Organised Crime: Perspectives on Global Security

By Adam Edwards; Peter Gill | Go to book overview

Part IV

Current and prospective responses

Implicit in the foregoing arguments about the origins, interpretations and case studies of TOC is a broader controversy in criminological thought over the appropriate conceptualisation of crime and control. At the root of this controversy is a dialogue about the limits of gauging policy change and learning in terms of criminal justice and its enforcement. In one sense it is banal to question the centrality of criminal justice as, by definitional fiat, practices only become 'crimes' when they are proscribed by various criminal legal codes. Yet the limitations of law enforcement as a means of actually controlling practices thus criminalised have been regularly noted in contributions to the first three parts of this book.

Here, however, a key division emerges between those who attribute these limitations to the poor formulation of law and its enforcement and those who attribute them to failures in the theory of control upon which criminal justice is premised. For the former, the implications for policy reform are better law-making and refinements to the devices of criminal justice, such as the omnipresent call for greater 'co-ordination' of law enforcement agencies and judicial dispensations, the provision of mutual judicial aid and resources to enhance the capacity for law enforcement, as in the standardisation of extradition procedures and powers of arrest across national borders, and protocols for the sharing of criminal intelligence. For the latter, as neatly argued by Levi in his contribution to this part of the book, 'In general, criminal justice only looks backwards at fixing blame, not forwards in strategic thinking'. From this perspective, the limitations of criminal justice policy are in its theoretical misconception of 'what works' in controlling crime, which no amount of legal reformulation and implementation reform is likely to allay. To switch policy-oriented learning about the efficacy of crime control away from the reactive mode of criminal justice and towards a more strategic way of thinking is to question the preconditions for crime, to ask what factors facilitate certain criminal practices, and then to consider the potential of alternative strategies for intervening in these preconditions as a means of at least reducing certain crimes. The contributions to this final part of the book examine current and prospective policy responses to TOC in terms

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Transnational Organised Crime: Perspectives on Global Security
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Figures x
  • Tables xi
  • Acknowledgements xiv
  • Introduction 1
  • References 6
  • Part I - Origins of the Concept 7
  • References 11
  • 1 - Transnational Organised Crime 13
  • 2 - Europe's Response to Transnational Organised Crime 28
  • Notes 39
  • References 40
  • 3 - Global Law Enforcement as a Protection Racket 42
  • Note 55
  • References 56
  • Part II - Measurements and Interpretations 59
  • References 64
  • 4 - Measuring Transnational Organised Crime 65
  • Note 77
  • 5 - Classify, Report and Measure 78
  • References 95
  • 6 - The Network Paradigm Applied to Criminal Organisations 97
  • References 113
  • 7 - Transnational Organised Crime 114
  • Notes 125
  • Part III - Case Studies 127
  • 8 - Bad Boys in the Baltics 131
  • Notes 141
  • 9 - Controlling Drug Trafficking in Central Europe 143
  • Note 154
  • 10 - Recognising Organised Crime's Victims 157
  • Notes 171
  • Part IV - Current and Prospective Responses 175
  • References 181
  • 11 - The Legal Regulation of Transnational Organised Crime 183
  • References 193
  • 12 - Countering the Chameleon Threat of Dirty Money 195
  • Notes 209
  • 13 - Criminal Asset-Stripping 212
  • 14 - Proteiform Criminalities 227
  • Notes 239
  • References 240
  • 15 - Organised Crime and the Conjunction of Criminal Opportunity Framework 241
  • References 262
  • 16 - After Transnational Organised Crime? 264
  • Note 279
  • Index 282
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