can convey the necessary ways of thinking to users. We will need this knowledge and these ways of thinking to keep up with sophisticated, organised criminals.
What are the next steps? The Falcone-funded study (Browne et al., 2001) considered the utility of CCO in structuring a knowledge base on what works in organised crime prevention. CCO appeared to work rather well in handling and capturing the complexity of organised crime in the example of a multi-scene scam involving a range of different actors with diverse resources in the export of stolen Mercedes cars to Africa. However, the Falcone research principally revealed great difficulty in obtaining more than a handful of detailed good practice examples to study. On the one hand, this means CCO has yet to be tested extensively as a knowledge-base framework, promising though it seems. On the other, it suggests further opportunities to try CCO out because, behind the lack of good practice examples, there appeared to be an absence of the kind of routine and systematic approach to reducing organised crimes that CCO can support. For this, CCO would have to be tested and refined at an operational level, and developed into a user-friendly toolkit, for example as an 'intelligence product' within the terms of the UK National Intelligence Model (NCIS, 2000).
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