Transnational Organised Crime: Perspectives on Global Security

By Adam Edwards; Peter Gill | Go to book overview

16

After transnational organised crime?

The politics of public safety

Adam Edwards and Peter Gill

Dates provide an alluring framework for historical and political analysis; for example, we routinely compare the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as though the numbers 1800 and 1900 can actually do any more for explanation than provide convenient bookends. So, here, it is tempting to identify the decade 1991-2001 as, in international political terms, the decade of transnational organised crime. Even more precisely, the bookends might be formed, at one end, by the failure of the conservative coup in Russia in August 1991 or the decision of several republics to form the Commonwealth of Independent States in December and, more clearly at the other, September 11, 2001, when hijacked planes were flown into the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington, DC.

The events, debates and policies of the period 1991-2001 do provide much of the substance of the chapters in this book; indeed, as explained in the Introduction, they provided the impetus for setting up the seminars in the first place. But dates are just bookends and it is important to acknowledge the longer gestation of these issues. For example, Ethan Nadelmann (1993) traced what he called the 'internationalization' of American law enforcement from the late eighteenth century onwards, a process that accelerated from the early 1970s particularly with respect to drugs. Similarly, in Europe, the earliest moves to achieve some form of multi-lateral co-operation on criminal matters regarding drugs trafficking came in 1972 with the formation of the Pompidou Group consisting of the then-EC states plus others and STAR (translated as 'Permanent Working Group on Drugs') which involved some EC countries plus the USA (specifically the Drugs Enforcement Agency). Until the 1980s, European policy initiatives remained relatively discrete - drugs from 1972, 'terrorism' in Trevi from 1976 onwards - but then issues began to be conflated into what Bigo (1994) identified as the 'security continuum' taking in terrorism, drugs, illegal migrants and asylum seekers. In 1989, EC Interior Ministers drew up the PALMA document with recommendations for action on all these security issues and, in 1992, the move to formalise the intergovernmental TREVI forum was completed in the Maastricht Treaty establishing the 'third pillar' for justice and home affairs and the decision

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Transnational Organised Crime: Perspectives on Global Security
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Figures x
  • Tables xi
  • Acknowledgements xiv
  • Introduction 1
  • References 6
  • Part I - Origins of the Concept 7
  • References 11
  • 1 - Transnational Organised Crime 13
  • 2 - Europe's Response to Transnational Organised Crime 28
  • Notes 39
  • References 40
  • 3 - Global Law Enforcement as a Protection Racket 42
  • Note 55
  • References 56
  • Part II - Measurements and Interpretations 59
  • References 64
  • 4 - Measuring Transnational Organised Crime 65
  • Note 77
  • 5 - Classify, Report and Measure 78
  • References 95
  • 6 - The Network Paradigm Applied to Criminal Organisations 97
  • References 113
  • 7 - Transnational Organised Crime 114
  • Notes 125
  • Part III - Case Studies 127
  • 8 - Bad Boys in the Baltics 131
  • Notes 141
  • 9 - Controlling Drug Trafficking in Central Europe 143
  • Note 154
  • 10 - Recognising Organised Crime's Victims 157
  • Notes 171
  • Part IV - Current and Prospective Responses 175
  • References 181
  • 11 - The Legal Regulation of Transnational Organised Crime 183
  • References 193
  • 12 - Countering the Chameleon Threat of Dirty Money 195
  • Notes 209
  • 13 - Criminal Asset-Stripping 212
  • 14 - Proteiform Criminalities 227
  • Notes 239
  • References 240
  • 15 - Organised Crime and the Conjunction of Criminal Opportunity Framework 241
  • References 262
  • 16 - After Transnational Organised Crime? 264
  • Note 279
  • Index 282
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