Global Responses to Terrorism: 9/11, Afghanistan and Beyond

By Mary Buckley; Rick Fawn | Go to book overview

3
Al-Qaeda
Organization and operations
Rohan Gunaratna

The anti-Soviet multinational Afghan campaign of 1979–1989, fought by Arabs and Asian Muslims and using Pakistan as a launching pad, produced a new generation of fighters – the Mujahidin or the warriors of God. They were driven by a politico-religious ideology of jihad or holy war, articulated by Dr. Abdullah Azzam, a Palestinian Jordanian. In Peshawar, Pakistan, Azzam founded both Maktab al-Khidimat Il Mujahidin al-Arab (MAK: the Afghan Service Bureau) in 1984 and al-Qaeda al-Sulbha (The Solid Base) in 1988. 1

With over fifty offices in some forty countries worldwide, MAK recruited Muslim youth, arranged for their passage, trained them and inducted them into the battlefield. Azzam's deputy and successor was Osama bin Laden, a Mujahid from the richest non-royal Saudi family. After the Soviet withdrawal in February 1989, MAK evolved into al-Qaeda and the Mujahidin. After bin Laden took over the organization in December 1989, members of al-Qaeda gravitated towards several other conflict zones where the Muslims were suffering or perceived to be suffering. They included Kashmir, Mindanao in the Philippines, Tajikistan, Chechnia, Dagestan, Azerbaijan, Algeria, Somalia and Bosnia. In parallel, al-Qaeda launched a campaign to oust the corrupt Muslim rulers and replace their regimes by establishing pious rulers and Islamic states.

In preparation to wage his global campaign, bin Laden established links with two dozen Islamist terrorist groups and political parties including the Abu Sayaaf Group in the Philippines; Moro Islamic Liberation Front; Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan; Eastern Turkistan Islamic Party; Armed Islamic Group of Algeria; al-Ansar Mujahidin in Chechnia; and Kumpulan Mujahidin Malaysia. As the West was perceived as assisting the opponents of these groups, the trajectory of their guerrilla and terrorist campaigns turned towards the Muslim regimes and Western countries, especially the USA.

Today the challenge before the international community is not only to neutralize al-Qaeda but also its associated groups. Even if bin Laden is killed, the legacy he has established by creating a powerful international alliance of terrorist groups will continue to pose a threat to international security. For instance, the integration of the two Egyptian groups – al-Islamiya al-Gama al-Masri (Islamic Group of Egypt) and al-Islamiya al-Jihad (Egyptian Islamic Jihad) has been pivotal to the success of al-Qaeda. By 1998, bin Laden absorbed and completely integrated

-37-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Global Responses to Terrorism: 9/11, Afghanistan and Beyond
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Dedication v
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments xvi
  • Introduction - World Reactions to September 11 and the 'War on Terror' 1
  • 1 - From Ground Zero to the War in Afghanistan 11
  • Notes 23
  • 2 - Implications of the Attacks of 9/11 for the Future of Terrorism 25
  • Notes 35
  • 3 - Organization and Operations 37
  • Notes 50
  • 4 - The United States of America 52
  • Notes 64
  • 5 - The United Kingdom 66
  • Notes 77
  • 6 - Canada 79
  • Notes 87
  • 7 - France 90
  • Notes 99
  • 8 - Germany 101
  • Notes 111
  • 9 - Italy 113
  • Notes 120
  • 10 - Iran and Iraq 122
  • Notes 133
  • 11 - Syria 135
  • Notes 142
  • 12 - Saudi Arabia 144
  • Notes 151
  • 13 - Impact on the Israel–palestine Peace Process 153
  • Notes 163
  • 14 - Africa 165
  • Notes 174
  • 15 - Political Islam in Southeast Asia and the Us–philippine Alliance 176
  • Notes 186
  • 16 - Pakistan 188
  • Notes 200
  • 17 - India 202
  • Notes 208
  • 18 - China 210
  • Notes 218
  • 19 - The Russian Federation 221
  • Notes 235
  • 20 - The Central Asian States 239
  • Notes 250
  • 21 - The Un, Nato and the Eu 252
  • Notes 262
  • 22 - Joanne Van Selm 265
  • Notes 274
  • 23 - What Has Changed? 276
  • Notes 282
  • 24 - War Without Warriors 284
  • 25 - Implications for the Study of International Relations 296
  • Notes 308
  • 26 - International Implications 310
  • Notes 317
  • Selected Bibliography 319
  • Index 323
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 334

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.