International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science

By John Feather; Paul Sturges | Go to book overview

Carmichael, J. (1992) 'The male librarian and the feminine image: A survey of stereotype, status, and gender perceptions', Library and Information Science Research 14: 411-46.
Carmichael, J. and Shontz, M. (1996) 'The last socially acceptable prejudice: Lesbian and gay issues, social responsibilities and coverage of the issues in MLS/ MLIS curricula, Library Quarterly 66: 21-58.
Loverich, P. and Degnan, D. (1999) 'Out on the shelves? Not really', Library Journal 124: 55.

Further reading
Carmichael, J. (ed.) (1998) Daring to Find Our Names: The Search for Lesbigay Library History, Greenwood. [Gay historiography and stories by GLBTRT pioneers.]
Gough, C. and Greenblatt, E. (eds) (1990) Gay and Lesbian Library Service, McFarland.
Kester, N. (ed.) (1997) Liberating Minds: The Stories and Professional Lives of Gay Lesbian and Bisexual Librarians and Their Advocates, McFarland. [Personal recollections and three essays.]
Rolph, A.(2000)'The life and timesof LiL: Lesbiansin the Library', in E. Kerslake and N. Moody (eds) Gendering Library History, John Moore University, pp. 196-208.
Thistlethwaite, P. (1994) 'Gays and lesbians in library history', in W. Wiegand and D. Davis (eds) Encyclopedia of Library History, Garland, pp. 223-7.

SEE ALSO: censorship; code of professional conduct; information professions; women in librarianship



A difficult concept to define in the area of INFORMATION provision, mainly because there are so many factors that will give rise to it. At the simplest level, it is the consequence of a failure to do some act that one was bound to do; or the doing of some act that one was prohibited from doing; or the doing of some lawful act in such a manner as to render it unlawful (for example, negligently or maliciously). The legal consequences that may flow from any of these acts or omissions may be the result of the normal application of the law, in other words occurring independently of the intention of the wrongdoer. They may also flow from an agreement to provide information, made between the wrongdoer and another to provide information of a certain type, for a certain purpose, for use by the client, in a particular way. This includes an expectation as to the level of distribution of the information. The liability outcomes relating to information can be more easily seen in two categories: first, liability for the information itself and, second, liability following a contract to provide information.


At the outset one must appreciate the nature of the 'product' with which one is dealing when providing information. Information is not property in its own right but it can be given some of the attributes of property in a variety of ways, each of which may potentially create a liability in relation to it.


Information is confidential if either it has been communicated in circumstances that a reasonable person would understand to be circumstances of confidence (this would tend to be a 'one-off' type of situation, such as a business proposition) or it is the subject and substance of a confidentiality contract (probably more of an ongoing obligation, such as the information communicated to a consultant). The use of information in breach of this confidence is actionable both in its own right, as a tort, or, if a confidentiality contract has been entered into, as a breach of contract.


It is not the information that is the problem here - in the sense of content, as would be the case for confidential information; instead it is the form into which the information is reduced for permanent record. 'Permanent form', as it is called by the current COPYRIGHT legislation, can include text, images or any other form of notation, code or language; thus, copying computer programs or materials from cd-rom without an express licence (see LICENCES) to do so is, subject to some limitations relating to different types of copyright, an infringement. If, therefore, in providing information to a client one makes use of documents, for example by photocopying them, to which one does not personally own copyright (and this would include letters of which one is the addressee), then one is incurring liability by infringing another's copyright. Equally, if one employs individuals who one knows do this, then one is liable for authorizing an infringement.


Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Cite this page

Cited page

Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations xv
  • Preface xvii
  • Acknowledgments xxi
  • How to Use This Book xxii
  • Abbreviations xxiii
  • A 1
  • B 32
  • C 55
  • Further Reading 104
  • D 120
  • E 152
  • F 193
  • G 206
  • H 215
  • I 233
  • J 335
  • K 341
  • L 361
  • References 368
  • M 399
  • N 440
  • O 457
  • P 494
  • Q 536
  • R 538
  • S 565
  • References 574
  • References 628
  • T 629
  • U 642
  • V 651
  • W 654
  • Z 661
  • Index 662


Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 688

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search


    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.