It gives me great pleasure at the completion of this book to acknowledge the support of many friends and colleagues over nearly a decade. Their sustaining interest helped me to grapple with painful issues, and their suggestions sharpened my thought. In addition, many colleges and universities gave me the opportunities and the forums to test my ideas against critical opinion.
The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars awarded me a fellowship that gave me the time to bring the book into focus; Miriam Weissbecker and Jason Wright of the center taught me the luxury of having dedicated research assistants. During several semesters, Montclair State University lightened my teaching load and granted me a Distinguished Scholar Award, which gave me essential time for the final stages of writing. The staff of the Montclair State University Library, in particular Norman Stock and Thomas Trone, always went beyond the call of duty to provide me with books and information.
I want to thank the following journals for giving permission to reprint revised versions of published articles: Modern Language Studies (Winter 1991), Studies in 20th Century Literature (Summer 1994), and German Studies Review (October 1996).