We have no standard anymore for anything, ever since human life is no longer the standard. 1
Until recently, the prevailing opinion was that most Germans who lived through the Hitler regime were immobilized by fear of Nazi brutalities and were therefore silent, passive, and not involved. This assessment has been challenged most notably by Robert Gellately in his 1990 study The Gestapo and German Society, in which he concludes that "the regime's dreaded enforcer would have been seriously hampered without a considerable degree of public co-operation." 2 Considering the enormous brutalities it perpetrated, the number of the Gestapo-the Secret State Police-was relatively small; 3 Gellately holds that the Gestapo, rather than being "an 'instrument of domination,'" was "to a large extent a reactive organization…structurally dependent on the continuing co-operation of German citizens" (136).
This cooperation manifested itself most frequently in denunciations. Gellately suggests that "denunciations from the population were the key link in the three-way interaction between the police, people, and policy in Nazi-Germany" (136). Although anti-Semitism figured in these denunciations, the motives were "usually determined by private interests and employed for instrumental reasons never intended by the regime" (147);