The murder of the Jews is being recognized as an integral yet non-integratable part of German history. 1
During the 1980s, before the fall of the Berlin wall and unification, several new developments started to shape the discourse about the Holocaust in Germany. They have been taking place outside literature. The first is the reemergence of a Jewish presence and culture in Germany; the second is the shift away from literature to the most conspicuous of public arts: architecture-specifically to the construction of Holocaust museums, monuments, and memorials.
To be sure, over the postwar decades, there have been various attempts on a regional and community level to salvage remnants of Jewish culture in Germany, to establish academic, artistic, and student exchanges, to teach about the Holocaust in school, 2 and to build volunteer groups (Action Reconciliation/Services for Peace is perhaps the best known; service in it fulfills the requirement of military service). Many of these activities were initiated by private citizens and citizen groups who wanted to show their concern (and perhaps even remorse) and to make amends through personal acts of commitment. 3 They were not reflected in literature, perhaps because they never became commonly held, unconscious assumptions. More recently, members of the third