The "Civil Society" Problematique: Deconstructing Civility and Southern Nigeria's Ethnic Radicalization

By Adedayo Oluwakayode Adekson | Go to book overview

CHAPTER III

Review of Literature

AT THE OUTSET, CHAPTER III OFFERS A REVIEW AND CRITIQUE OF THE civil society literature. The major part of this discussion traces the concept's evolution and the sundry manner in which it has been analyzed since the 1700s through a delineation of the tenets of the Classical/Neoclassical, Liberal, Hegelian, Marxist and Gramscian variants of civil society. The second section concentrates on contemporary discussions of civil society, including the controversies surrounding its definition and efficacy as an explanatory tool.

In subsequent overviews, my assessment shifts to select analyses of the pro and anti-civil society arguments presented by a few Africanists. 1 It is hoped that this summation would enhance the reader's understanding of conventional and radical reflections on civil society, the diverse nature of Africa's non-state sphere and the limitations of the dominant views of civil society. Equally, due to the continuing importance of ethnicity in the Nigerian context and the habitual disbarment of ethnically oriented organizations from the civil society paradigm, the fourth segment of Chapter III briefly summarizes the literature on this critical motif. Finally, to better understand the context in which profiled groups were formed, I pinpoint the factors that are responsible for the observed militancy of Nigerian civil society, as per the hypothesis outlined in Chapter II.

In order to succinctly account for this process of radicalization, due reference to the underpinnings of the independent variable, regime policy, is compulsory. As mentioned in the methodology discussion, regime policy is employed in this volume to encompass the repressive activities of the Nigerian State since independence2, the marginalization of specific ethnic groups, as perceived by organizations representing these interests, and economic and social underdevelopment that arose from direct government behavior or apathy. At the end of this chapter, I present the following

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The "Civil Society" Problematique: Deconstructing Civility and Southern Nigeria's Ethnic Radicalization
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • List of Tables xi
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • Preface xv
  • Chapter I - Introduction 3
  • Chapter II - Overview of Study 13
  • Chapter III - Review of Literature 31
  • Chapter IV - Summary of Results-Ijaw Youth Council 59
  • Chapter V - Summary of Results-Movement for the Actualisation of the Sovereign State of Biafra (Massob) 87
  • Chapter VI - Summary of Results-Oodua Peoples Congress 109
  • Chapter VII - Analysis of Theoretical Anomalies and Regime Policy 135
  • Chapter VIII - Analysis of the Process of Radicalization 169
  • Chapter IX - Implications of Findings and Conclusion 207
  • Appendix A 221
  • Appendix B 227
  • Appendix C 233
  • Appendix D 235
  • Appendix E 237
  • Notes 241
  • Bibliography 277
  • Index 315
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