The Routledge Dictionary of Anthropologists

By Gérald Gaillard | Go to book overview


OTHER RESEARCHERS

Aside from those whose bibliographies are given below, researchers worthy of mention include the folklorist P. Sébillot and L. Mariller, the first man to establish a study programme on the religious history of non-civilized peoples. Other, less well-known or now forgotten figures are E. Verrier, Schoebel, the sociologist C. Letourneau, the jurist R. Maunier, and Georges Montondon, a naturalized French anthropologist of Swiss origin, a eugenicist, anti-Semite and racist who in 1935 wrote Ologénèse culturelle: Traité d'ethnologie cyclo-culturelle et d'ergologie systématique [Cultural Hologenesis: Treatise on Cyclo-cultural Ethnology and Systematic Ergology] (Paris: Payot). Montondon was a professor of ethnology at the Ecole d'anthropologie de Paris, founded by Broca, and he launched the journal l'Ethnie française in 1941. During the Liberation he was executed for collaboration.


Marin, Louis (1871-1951)

After gaining a number of academic qualifications, Louis Marin turned to politics. As a deputy he secured the passage of a considerable amount of social legislation, including provisions for maternity leave and laws on parental neglect. He was a minister several times, founder of the newspaper La Nation, president of the Société d'ethnographie de Paris, and director of the Ecole d'anthropologie de Paris, where he succeeded Broca. He provided great assistance to French anthropology in its early days and supported the creation of the Musée de l'Homme, whose library is named after him. He also wrote many articles, all published in the journal L'Ethnographie.


van Gennep, Arnold (1873-1957)

Born in Württemberg in Germany, Arnold van Gennep studied at the EPHE and then taught in Neuchâtel, where he directed the Musée d'ethnographie (1912-1915). After research on totemism in Madagascar (Tabou et totémisme à Madagascar [Taboo and Totemism in Madagascar], 1904) and Australia (Mythes et légendes d'Australie [Myths and Legends of Australia], 1906), he spent a lengthy period reflecting on religion before writing Les Rites de Passage [Rites of Passage] (1909), which remains one of the great classics of ethnology. He invented the category of the 'rite of passage', which he presented according to a typology - death, withdrawal and rebirth - which has been much used since. Although van Gennep took an interest in North Africa and published a series of important articles on Algerian ethnography in the Revue d'ethnographie et de sociologie, which he himself founded in 1911, the main focus of his work was French folklore, on which he produced a vast investigation published from 1943 to 1958. N. Belmont (1974, 1975) has aptly written that van Gennep's work closes the period of amateur scholarship and that he is the founder of ethnography in France.


Rivet, Paul (1876-1958)

Born into a modest family in the Ardennes, Paul Rivet entered military college in Lyons as a means of improving his family's finances, and he graduated in 1897 at the age of twenty-one. In 1901 he became the physician to a French mission sent to measure a meridian in Ecuador, where he stayed for five years and amassed a collection of artefacts and observations (Ethnologie ancienne de l'Equateur [The Ancient Ethnology of Ecuador],1912). On his return in 1906 he was seconded by the Armed Forces Ministry to the Musée d'histoire naturelle, and in 1909 was appointed as its deputy director. His research was devoted mainly to

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