In the previous chapters we defined the foundations of an integrative model of supervision and identified both the supporting theories and a sequence to the training process. In this chapter and those that follow we begin to discuss the practical aspects of supervision with regard to the specific modalities, individual and group formats, culture, ethics, administrative issues, and troubleshooting. We expect that you will be able to take resources from each of these chapters to build your own evolving model and philosophy of supervision.
We begin by looking at the advantages and limitations of the primary modalities used in the supervisory process; live, videotape, audiotape, and case presentations. Each of these methods has its enthusiastic supporters among theoreticians, supervisors, and therapists. Sometimes the method selected is dictated by theory. For example, some supervisors who employ structural-strategic or a postmodern approach would expect to use primarily live supervision. Those supervisors using psychodynamic or family of origin approaches would rely largely on case presentations. From our integrative model, the supervisor is encouraged to employ aspects of each and all of these modalities with trainees, according to an informed choice as to what method would be the most effective and will highlight certain learning issues.
The other factor that may effect the choice of a particular method, besides the theoretical orientation, is the clinical setting in which the training occurs. Many settings, such as institutes that focus on a sole model, use one or two primary methods. Other settings, such as community agencies, may not have the