SOME NATIONAL SCHOOLS
THERE ARE STILL a few nationalist movements of more recent growth which claim attention. Of the three founders of modern Spanish music, Pedrell, Albeniz, and Granados, only the last-named wrote any chamber music, and that of little importance. The first to turn his attention to this field was Joaquin Turina, probably through having been a pupil of the Schola Cantorum in Paris, where chamber music was assiduously fostered. He has written a string quartet, a piano quintet, and a piano trio, besides several works bearing "program" titles, such as Escena Andaluza for piano, viola, and string quartet, La Anunciación for piano sextet, and La Oración del Torero for string quartet. Then there is Conrado del Campo, the viola player, composer of numerous quartets, of which few are published. Of these, Caprichos Romdnticos is the best known. Oscar Espla and Adolfo Salazar have also written chamber music, but the most important of living Spanish composers, Manuel de Falla, is represented only by his concerto for harpsichord accompanied by six instruments, a work of profound interest, and by a song accompanied by five. His pupil Ernesto Halffter has published a string quartet.
There is a more fertile activity in modern Hungarian music. Some years ago Hans Koessler, a German musician, pupil of Rheinberger, with some excellent chamber music to his credit, became the director of the Royal Hungarian Academy of Music at Budapest. Like Dvořák, in similar circumstances, he paid his hosts the compliment of introducing the Hungarian idiom into his works, where it is scarcely more prominent than in those of Brahms, on whom he modelled himself. He derives, however, some historical importance from the circumstance that Hungarian music today is completely