In this chapter we focus on several examples of existing applications and case studies that relate to general land use classifications found in most American planning and zoning codes and that illustrate specific CPTED, defensible space, situational crime prevention or environmental crime prevention principles. We employ cases whose focus is very narrow in scope (micro) as well as those which are broad (macro). These cases are documented in the literature or based upon our own field observations.
As noted previously, the US federal system encourages the splintering of public policy as it moves through various layers and levels of government throughout the nation. This is an important reason why there is little consistency in approach or application of place-based crime prevention measures from one community to the next. Some applications involve the adoption of ordinances that implement CPTED techniques, whereas others are grounded not in law but in practice as carried out by owners or designers on their own initiative. Tempe, Arizona and Sarasota, Florida have chosen broad brush applications, incorporating defensible space principles and CPTED into fundamental planning and zoning ordinances and site review procedures, whereas other communities selectively embed CPTED in narrowly focused law, such as Gainesville, Florida's convenience store ordinance. In still other places, CPTED, defensible space and situational crime prevention techniques have often been 'unconsciously' inserted - much as Newman's defensible space principles have found their way into public housing design - in a range of planning, zoning and land development ordinances and professional practice. For instance, surveillance and access control concepts derived from defensible space are woven into countless Automatic Teller Machines ('ATMs' in the US and 'cash points' in Britain) siting ordinances in jurisdictions across the nation, whereas many of these communities have no other CPTED provisions in their codes. As the 1998 US Conference of Mayors' survey attests, place-based crime prevention approaches tend to be recent additions sprinkled throughout land development