Competitiveness Strategy in Developing Countries: A Manual for Policy Analysis

By Ganeshan Wignaraja | Go to book overview

Notes
1
The late 1980s saw a series of studies of the effects of 'openness' on growth which misused correlations and definitions as evidence for 'export led growth', most notably Papageorgiou et al 1991. There were also attempts to simplify all the elements of a trade regime by classifying the regime as import substituting, neutral or export promoting in terms of effective exchange rates (Bhagwati, 1988).
2
Many of the 'allowed' subsidies are designed to cover measures used by the developed countries, for example, to support agriculture, and require more administrative competence than may be available.
3
The labour and environment provisions have not yet (September 1999) been used.
4
Trade liberalisation is often a component of macroeconomic adjustment programmes imposed in developing countries by the international financial institutions. Here, the trade component is intended to help in the restoration of domestic and external balance, so that this can be considered an example of using trade for other policies. The potential effects and the tools are the same as for other cases of this.
5
It is among the top five for 83 per cent of countries, and the principal export for a third of developing countries. It has the same advantage of many manufactures of being in principle exportable by any country; it is sufficiently varied not to be dependent on particular natural endowments.

References
Bhagwati, J.N. (1988), 'Export-Promoting Trade Strategy: Issues and Evidence', World Bank Research Observer, 3(1), 27-58.
GATT (1986), Text of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Geneva: GATT.
Hoekman, B. and Martin, W. (eds) (2001), The Developing Countries and the WTO: A Pro-Active Agenda, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
IMF (1994, 1998), Direction of Trade Statistics Yearbook, Washington, DC: IMF.
IMF (2000), World Economic Outlook, Washington, DC: IMF.
ITC/Commonwealth Secretariat (1999), Business Guide to the World Trading System, Geneva: International Trade Centre.
Milner, C., Morrissey, O., Rudaheranwa, N. (1999), 'Protection, Trade Policy and Transport Costs: Effective Taxation of Uganda Exporters', Paris: EADI.
Page, Sheila (1990), Trade, Finance and Developing Countries, Savage, MD: Barnes and Noble Books.
Page, Sheila (1994), How Developing Countries Trade, London and New York: Routledge.
Page, Sheila (2000), 'Trade in the 2000s: New Rules, New Preferences, New Priorities', in Wahiduddin Mahmud (ed.), Adjustment and Beyond: The Reform Experience in South Asia, Basingstoke (UK): Palgrave, pp. 166-182.
Papageorgiou, D., Michaely, M. and Choksi, A.M. (eds) (1991), Liberalizing Foreign Trade. 7 Volumes, Cambridge: Basil Blackwell Inc. United Nations, Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, New York: United Nations. United Nations (1998), World Investment Report 1998. Trends and Determinants, New York and Geneva: United Nations.
Wignaraja, Ganeshan (1998), Trade Liberalization in Sri Lanka, Basingstoke: Macmillan.
World Bank Group, The (2000), Global Development Finance 2000. Analysis and Summary Tables, Washington, DC: World Bank.

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