Children in the City: Home, Neighborhood, and Community

By Pia Christensen; Margaret O'Brien | Go to book overview

included some examples of small and very practical steps, which would begin to enhance the quality of life for urban children and so help reduce divisions between children living in cities.


Notes
1
The Childhood, Urban Space and Citizenship: Child-sensitive Urban Regeneration project was part of the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) Research Programme on Children 5-15: Growing into the 21st Century, L12951039 (other team members were Jon Greenfield, Deborah Jones, David Sloan and Michael Rustin, to whom the author expresses many thanks).
2
The first stage of the study involved a child and parent school-based survey (n = 1,378) covering neighbourhood clusters in London and Hatfield, a first-generation British new town, situated some 60 miles north of London, built under the 1945 New Towns Act to house the overspill population from north and east London. The children were aged 10 years to 14 years. The second stage involved a sub-sample of twenty in-depth home-based case studies of 10-11-year-old children in their neighbourhood. Further details of the project are outlined in O'Brien et al. (1999).
3
In Britain there has been a tendency for people to move out of larger towns and cities into rural areas and smaller towns (DETR 2000). Rural areas tend to have settlements of fewer than ten thousand people and between 1981 and 1991 the rural share of postcode sectors in England increased by 7 per cent. Similarly, more people are moving from the inner cities to the suburbs. This trend is expected to continue despite projected population increases in London.
4
For instance, only 4 per cent of 10-11-year-olds did not play outside without adult supervision, were always accompanied to school and were never at home alone. By contrast just under one-quarter (23 per cent) of 10-11-year-olds were highly autonomous (played outside without adult supervision; were able to go to school unaccompanied and could be at home alone). The majority of children were situated in the middle range of the restricted-autonomous dimension.

References
Ackroyd, P., 2000, London: The Biography (London: Chatto and Windus).
Davin, A., 1996, Growing Up Poor: Home, School and Street in London 1870-1914 (London: Rivers Oram Press).
Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR), 2000, Journey to School Project (London: DETR).
Evening Standard, 2002, 14 February, 'Blunkett reads riot act on street crime'.
Hillman, M., Adams, J. and Whitelegg, J., 1990, One False Move: A Study of Children's Independent Mobility (London: PSI).
Humphries, S., Mack, J. and Perks, R., 1988, A Century of Childhood (London: Sidgwick & Jackson).
Littman, M., 2000, 'Gauging a neighbourhood pulse: measures for community research from The Aspen Institute'. The Child Indicator, 2 (1), 3-4.
Lynch, K., 1977, Growing Up in Cities (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).
McKendrick, J., Bradford, M. and Fielder, A., 2000, 'Time for a party! Making sense of the commercialisation of leisure space for children'. In S. L. Holloway and

-160-

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Children in the City: Home, Neighborhood, and Community
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Figures ix
  • Tables x
  • Preface xv
  • Acknowledgements xvii
  • 1 - Children in the City 1
  • References 11
  • 2 - Place, Space and Knowledge 13
  • Notes 27
  • 3 - Children's Views of Family, Home and House 29
  • 4 - 'Displaced' Children? 46
  • 5 - Shaping Daily Life in Urban Environments 66
  • 6 - Children in the Neighbourhood 82
  • References 98
  • 7 - The Street as a Liminal Space 101
  • 8 - Neighbourhood Quality in Children's Eyes 118
  • 9 - Regenerating Children's Neighbourhoods 142
  • Notes 160
  • 10 - Improving the Neighbourhood for Children 162
  • Notes 180
  • 11 - Planning Childhood 184
  • Note 204
  • Index 206
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