Chapter 17

A bilingual production model: Levelt's 'speaking' model adapted

KEES DE BOT

WHILE RESEARCH INTO BILINGUALISM increased dramatically in the 1980s, there was remarkably little research aimed at the development of a model of bilingualism. The linguistic performance of bilinguals has been used to support syntactic theories-for example, Woolford's (1983) study of government and binding and code-switching and White's research into the relationship between Universal Grammar and second language acquisition (1989)-but there are no theories about the bilingual speaker that aim at a description of the entire language production process. There are of course partial descriptions of the process, as in Krashen's Monitor theory (1981), Bialystok's Analysis/Control approach (Bialystok, 1990), and the global description of the production process in Færch and Kasper (1986), but a full model which covers the whole process from message generation to articulation is still lacking.

In this article it is assumed that the single most important entity we are concerned with in model-construction is the individual speaker in whom we see all factors and influences combined. In language behaviour research there have traditionally been reasonably sharp dividing lines between linguistic, psycholinguistic, and sociolinguistic research. In a good production model these dividing lines fade; the model should be able to cope with universal characteristics of language as well as cognitive processes and situational factors in interaction and their consequences for language use. The individual speaker is seen as someone in whom all sorts of influences on language use are expressed, influences of a microsociological nature (influences resulting from the situation in which interaction takes place) as well as those of a macrosociological nature (such as language repression and language contact). In such an approach, societal concepts such as language vitality, ethnicity, and social mobility have, to use

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