GLOSSARY
acculturation The process whereby an individual adjusts to a new culture, including the acquisition of the language(s) of that culture. See also assimilation.
achieved bilingualism Acquisition of bilingualism later than childhood. See also late bilingualism.
additive bilingualism A situation in which a bilingual's two languages combine in a complementary and enriching fashion.
ambilingualism Same as balanced bilingualism.
anomie A bilingual's state of anxiety resulting from an inability to resolve the conflicting demands from two cultures.
ascendant bilingualism A situation in which a bilingual's ability to function in a second language is developing due to increased use.
ascribed bilingualism Acquisition of bilingualism early in childhood. See also early bilingualism.
assimilation A process whereby an individual or group acculturates to another group often by losing their own ethnolinguistic characteristics.
asymmetrical bilingualism Same as receptive bilingualism.
attrition The gradual loss of a language within a person over time.
baby talk Distinctive linguistic characteristics found in the speech of adults when addressing very young children.
back translation A translation is translated back into the original language, usually to assess the accuracy of the first translation.
balanced bilingualism A situation in which a bilingual's mastery of two languages is roughly equivalent. Also called ambilingualism, equibilingualism and symmetrical bilingualism.
base language The language which provides the morphosyntactic structure of an utterance in which code-switching and code-mixing occur. Also called matrix language.
biculturalism A situation in which a bilingual individual or group identifies with and participates in more than one culture.
BICS Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills.
bidialectalism Proficiency in the use of more than one dialect of a language, whether regional or social.
bilinguality A psychological state of the individual who has access to more than one linguistic code as a means of social communication.

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