expanding European Union have come to share aspects of a common existence in a way which has not happened hitherto. Although the 2001 Governance White Paper (CEC 2001a) acknowledges that, half a century after the Treaty of Paris formally launched the integration process, many EU citizens do not know the difference between EU institutions, these institutions are nevertheless arguably establishing a transnational space. EMU is undoubtedly the most concrete manifestation of the existence of this transnational community, but in other areas too, such as environment and public health, the EU has played a very public role. Thus, while most European citizens may not feel they share a common European culture, as noted above, there is a possibility that as more people become aware of the significance of EU policy the EU will become more of a focus for their concerns and aspirations. The 2001 Governance White Paper places considerable emphasis on the need for the EU to connect with organisations outside the formal political sphere in order to give the EU a greater presence in the everyday lives of its citizens. Whether or not the EU will succeed in making stronger connections to the lives of its citizens remains to be seen, but the emphasis on institutions and citizenship at least lays the foundations for a more inclusive idea of 'Europe'.