Transnational Corporations: Fragmentation Amidst Integration

By Grazia Ietto-Gillies | Go to book overview

Notes

Chapter 1
1
Exceptions to this pattern are some long-distance trade routes such as the silk route from China to Europe.
2
This does not mean that multinational companies and their activities are a feature of the last fifty years. Their establishment and activities date prior to WWI (Jones, 1986) and indeed some authors trace them back to the inter-states activities of major banks in Renaissance Italy (such as the Florentine Medici bank) (Wilkins, 1998).
3
Kozul-Wright and Rowthorn (1998b) also stress the qualitative and quantitative nature of global processes (cf. their introduction, pp. 1-34).
4
The use of the term 'domain' in this specific context is taken from Held et al. (1999).
5
The role of liberalisation and privatisation in the globalisation process is discussed in Milberg (1998).
6
Obstfeld (1998) shows that in the four decades prior to WWI the ratio of international net capital flows, as percentage of GDP was higher than at any other period since.

Chapter 2
1
The growing importance of China in internationalisation is highlighted also by the growing ratios of various indicators of her international activities - FDI, exports, industrial output, employment - in relation to the domestic economy (UNCTAD, 1996: II.3, p. 56 and John et al., 1997).
2
FDI includes both greenfield and mergers and acquisition investment. The two variables - FDI and GFCF - are not therefore strictly comparable. The theoretical implications of this point will be reconsidered in chapter ten.
3
More on this issue in the next chapter.
4
For countries and regions details cf. UNCTAD (2000). An analysis of cross-border M&As for EU countries is in Ietto-Gillies et al. (2000).
5
Cantwell's analysis is wider than the one mentioned here. He considers the pattern of trade (intra- versusinter-firm trade and intra- versus inter-industry trade) as well as the applicability of the traditional factor endowment (Heckscher- Ohlin-Samuelson) framework for the explanation of trade.
6
In this passage DI stands for direct investment and EDIE for European Direct Investment in Europe.

-191-

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