Strangers at the Gates: New Immigrants in Urban America

By Roger Waldinger | Go to book overview

how, in turn, urban structures have shaped immigrant trajectories are the questions to which the rest of this book attends.


Notes
1
In retrospect, revocation of the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1943 might mark the beginning of the new immigration era. This measure, to be sure, had little practical importance in the short term, because it allowed for the influx of only 105 Chinese immigrants a year. But it also indicated that immigration decisions were sensitive to foreign policy considerations, as would often be the case in years to come. Those same factors, which would affect Hungarians, Cubans, Indochinese, and others, also helped expand the scope of Chinese immigration in the immediate postwar years.
2
David Reimers, Still the Golden Door: The Third World Comes to America (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985).
3
Because the number of foreign students began to mount significantly as of the mid–1950s, the seeds of high-skilled Asian immigration were probably planted prior to the enactment of the 1965 legislation itself.
4
For an overview of Asian immigration, see Herbert Barringer, Robert B. Gardner, and Michael J. Levin, Asian and Pacific Islanders in the United States (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1993), a comprehensive though already outdated volume. Other groups—various Middle Easterners and Africans—followed the same trajectory, and the immigrant population thus diversified to groups that had never previously made the United States their home.
5
Calculated from the Statistical Yearbook of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, various years).
6
On the background of West Indian migration, see Ira DeA. Reid, The Negro Immigrant: His Background, Characteristics, and Social Adjustment, 1899–1937 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1939); and Philip Kasinitz, Caribbean New Yorkers (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1992).
7
Ernesto Galarza, Merchants of Labor: The Mexican Bracero Story (Santa Barbara, Calif.: McNally & Loftin, 1964); Douglas Massey, Rafael Alarcón, Jorge Durand, and Humberto González, Return to Aztlan (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1988).
8
David Lopez, Eric Popkin, and Edward Telles, “Central Americans: At the Bottom, Struggling to Get Ahead, ” in Ethnic Los Angeles, ed. Roger Waldinger and Mehdi Bozorgmehr (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1996).
9
Robert Warren and Jeffrey Passel, “A Count of the Uncountable: Estimates of Undocumented Aliens Counted in the 1980 United States Census, ” Demography, 24, no. 3 (1987): 375–393.
10
Susan Gonzalez Baker, The Cautious Welcome: The Legalization Programs of the Immigration Reform and Control Act (Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, 1990).

-73-

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