THE TEXTS AND THEIR STRUCTURE
THE CRUSADE sermon texts collected here represent different types of models. Some are very long and elaborate, showing fairly detailed argumentative structures. Others are short and succinct, giving only basic points and mere hints as to how the themes presented might be developed in an actual sermon. In principle, we can establish three categories: the 'extended model sermon' (James of Vitry), the 'simple model sermon' (Gilbert of Tournai, Eudes of Châteauroux), and the 'abridged model sermon' (Humbert of Romans, Bertrand de la Tour).
James of Vitry's extended model sermons are considerably longer than any of the other ones and supply more preaching material than a preacher would probably use for one sermon. The texts were certainly much longer than the average crusade sermon, which was expected to be short and to the point.1 Not only do they include a protheme, which none of the others do, but they are also the only models that supply a variety of different exempla. The other model sermons only ever include one exemplum, if indeed they include any at all.2 The two model sermons by James of Vitry also differ from the others in that the material presented is only roughly arranged in the form of a sermon. They have a composite structure with both models falling into three parts: a protheme, the main section in which an exposition of the initial Bible passage is developed and a final part which lists a choice of subthemes and exempla which are not directly related to the main section.3 Even more than the other model sermons, James of Vitry's extended models must be regarded as carefully____________________