Gender, Welfare State, and the Market: Towards a New Division of Labour

By Thomas P. Boje; Arnlaug Leira | Go to book overview

Introduction

Gender, welfare state and the market - towards a new division of labour

Thomas P. Boje and Arnlaug Leira

For decades the modern welfare states have been under growing constraints, and calls for restructuring, roll-back or overhaul are commonly voiced across the western world. Labour markets, families and welfare states are changing as are the interinstitutional arrangements. The relationship between women and men is taking new forms within the labour market as well as in families, which has crucial consequences in defining social citizenship; thus the dominant 'gender contract' is under pressure.

Whatever the character of the welfare state being discussed, the future of the 'welfare state' is high on the political agenda. This is a major analytic theme whether the welfare systems in question are classified as institutional or residual, in the tradition from Wilensky and Lebeaux (1958), and, following Richard Titmuss (1974), as residual, institutional-redistributive or industrial achievement-performance models, and, in the terminology of Gøsta Esping-Andersen's (1990) elaboration, as social-democratic, corporative-conservative or liberal welfare state regimes, respectively. Generally, the crisis of the welfare state is analysed with reference to the ongoing comprehensive structural and institutional changes: globalization of economies, rapid restructuring of labour markets, deregulation, flexibilization, widespread deskilling and demands for reskilling of the workforce and shifts in the balance between labour and capital as well as in the gender balance of employment.

This book starts from the profound gendered division of paid and unpaid work and care. It examines the gender outcomes of processes of restructuring within the labour market, the welfare state and the family. The contributions also explore, in different ways, the interplay between social change and policy reform in western Europe, North America and Japan. The main field of research is the welfare state approach to the combination of work and family responsibilities, and the gendered outcomes of welfare state intervention. The current economic constraints do form a background for several of the contributions, but not a major theme. From different perspectives, and examining different forms of the welfare state, the book deals with the impact of two processes that in particular have triggered discussions about policy reform: the first is the comprehensive change in the demographic structure and in family relations, the second is represented by the mass mobilization of women

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Gender, Welfare State, and the Market: Towards a New Division of Labour
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Figures vii
  • Tables viii
  • Notes on Editors x
  • Introduction 1
  • References 17
  • Part I - Women's Employment and Welfare Systems 21
  • 1 - Paid Work, Unpaid Work and Welfare 23
  • Notes 39
  • 2 - Citizenship, Family Policy and Women's Patterns of Employment 41
  • Notes 67
  • 3 - Variation Within Post-Fordist and Liberal Welfare State Countries 71
  • Notes 85
  • 4 - Welfare States, Labour Markets and Gender Relations in Transition 89
  • References 108
  • 5 - Family Policy and Mothers' Employment 111
  • Part II - Family Policy - Work and Care in Different Welfare Systems 134
  • 6 - Gendered Policies 135
  • Notes 152
  • 7 - Combining Work and Family 157
  • References 172
  • 8 - Childcare Policies in Japan 175
  • 9 - Lone Mothers 206
  • 10 - Changing Obligations and Expectations 226
  • Index 242
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