History and International Relations

By Thomas W. Smith | Go to book overview

NOTES

2

THE HISTORICAL PROBLEM

1
Important works on the relation between history and international relations include Bryce (1909), Hughes (1960), Gilbert (1968), Birch (1969), Jensen (1969), Ford (1972), Reynolds (1973), Purnell (1976), Small (1976), Schroeder (1977), Stone (1977), Singer (1978), Lauren (1979), Maier (1980), Friedländer et al. (1981), Craig (1983), Thorne (1983), Hill (1985), Gaddis (1987), Thorne (1988), Sked (1989), Njølstad (1990), Howard (1991), Kavanagh (1991), Watson (1992), Hall and Kratochwil (1993), Salomon (1993), Buzan and Little (1994), Levy (1994b), Schroeder (1994a), Spence (1994), Buzan and Little (1995), Puchala (1995), Ferguson and Mansbach (1996), Lustick (1996), Elman and Elman (1997), Gaddis (1997a), Ingram (1997), Levy (1997), Schroeder (1997), and Suganami (1997).
2
The original German is in Ranke (1874: vii). Georg Iggers points out that "eigentlich," the key to the phrase, had an ambiguity in nineteenth-century German that it no longer has. The word meant "actually" or "really," but it also meant "characteristic" or "essential." Iggers attributes this latter usage to Ranke, and suggests that a better translation of the phrase might be, "how, essentially, things happened" (see Iggers and Moltke 1973: xix, 137).
3
Cf. Marc Bloch's (1963:140) plea to historians not to become obsessed with judging their subjects: "Robespierrists! Anti-Robespierrists! For pity's sake, simply tell us what Robespierre was." Cf. also Ernst Renan's stricture that history be written "with as much supreme indifference as if [it] were written in another planet" (Snyder 1958:8).
4
This was the reported rejoinder of Benjamin Jowett, Master of Balliol College, Oxford, to William Stubbs's attempts to instill Ranke's method in undergraduates. From 1866 to 1884, Stubbs held the Regius Professorship of Modern History at Oxford (see Marwick 1970:54-5).
5
Of the luminaries of nineteenth-century American historiography, George Bancroft, who studied under Ranke in Germany, probably comes closest to the master's great-nation Historismus. Bancroft's magisterial History of the United States (1834-1840) sees reflected in US history the tide of a universal democratic spirit, and in the case of "manifest destiny," harmony between divine will and US national interests.
6
The classic statement is Ernst Bernheim's Lehrbuch der historischen Methode (1889), which focuses on the "logic of discovery," setting aside narrative construction as a matter of aesthetics and ideology. Similar arguments are made in Goldstein (1976) and Ankersmit (1983).

-191-

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History and International Relations
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • 2 - The Historical Problem in International Relations 7
  • 3 - History, Contingency, and the Roots of Realism 33
  • 4 - History, Analogy, and Policy Realism 61
  • 5 - The Poverty of Ahistoricism 92
  • 6 - "The Importance of Being Scientific" 119
  • 7 - Exit from History? 148
  • 8 - Conclusion 179
  • Notes 191
  • References 196
  • Index 218
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