cable and satellite television
The importance of developing the new media of cable and satellite as part of France's hi-tech communications revolution featured prominently on the media policy agenda of both Socialist and Gaullist governments throughout the 1980s. However, the era of multichannel cable television has been slow to arrive. By the late 1990s only about 10 per cent of French households were hooked up to a cable network. Satellite television had fared even less well, with only a handful of households equipped to receive the output of the technologically oversophisticated French direct-broadcasting satellites Télédiffusion 1 and 2. However, in the late 1990s the development of digital television looked set to give a boost to satellite television in France.
See also: television
b. 1953, Agen
With his occitan (Southern French) accent, nostalgic and sometimes melancholy songs, Francis Cabrel has espoused good causes, for example, leukaemia with Il faudra leur dire (They Must be Told), and has defended his atavistic roots with Les Chevaliers cathares (The Cathar Knights). But the so-called ermite d'Astaffort (hermit of Astaffort) is perhaps most important as an outstanding lyricist, charismatic stage performer and stout defender of la chanson française (French song).
See also: song/chanson
Since its beginnings in the 1960s, café theatre-performed cabaret-style in cafés-has grown from a marginalized art form to one worthy of its own section in Paris events guides and a significant place at the Avignon festival, with a repertoire ranging from the classics to one-man stand-up comedy shows, and a reputation for creativity and nonconformism. Often forced to work with limited resources and space, like