See also: decolonization; francophone popular music: DOM-TOMs; parties and movements in francophone countries: DOM-TOMs
francophone writing (fiction, poetry): Indian Ocean
The principal islands-Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion and the Seychelles-all have a literary output in French, but its status differs as a result of their varied populations and contrasting colonial history. In all these areas, French as a literary language is rivalled by local languages such as Creole in Reunion, Mauritius and the Seychelles, English and Indian languages in Mauritius, and Malagasy languages in Madagascar. There is nevertheless a well-established tradition of writing in French, going back to the late eighteenth century in the case of Reunion and the early nineteenth century in Mauritius.
The postwar years have seen contrasting developments of these latter two traditions. Mauritian poetry has achieved French and international consecration through the figures of Malcolm de Chazal (1902-81), a visionary and aphoristic poet much admired by André Breton and Jean Paulhan; and Edouard Maunick (b. 1931), a poet of exile and multicultural island identity and a figurehead of francophone literary circles in Paris. By contrast, the contemporary poets of Reunion have been more concerned to establish and explore their Creole identity, often by writing in Creole or incorporating Creolisms into their use of French. The pioneer of the movement of créolie was Jean Albany (1917-84), with his collection Zamal of 1951-the title is the Creole word for 'marijuana', symbolizing the poet's heady memories of his childhood on the island. Others of a more conventional inspiration celebrate Reunionnais decor and culture, such as the archbishop Gilbert Aubry (b. 1942), in Rivages d'Alizés (Trade-Wind Shores) of 1971, and Hymne à la Créolie (Hymn to Creolia) of 1978; or the long-exiled Jean-Henri Azéma (b. 1913) in Olographe (Testament) of 1978. A more militant poetry grew up in the 1970s, aware of the heritage of slavery and contemporary social inequalities, with the monumental epic poem Vali pour une reine morte (Lament for a Late Queen) of 1973 by Boris Gamaleya (b. 1930); and the populist and autonomist poetry of Alain Lorraine (b. 1946) in Tienbo le rein (Let's Stay as One) of 1975. More recent militant poets, such as Carpanin Marimoutou (b. 1956), have moved from French to Creole, often publishing bilingual editions of their poetry, such as Romans pou la mèr et la tèr (Romance for the Sea and the Land) of 1995.
In Madagascar, with the colonial imposition of education in French, a generation of poets grew up who attempted to transpose into French the forms and qualities of the indigenous Malagasy poetic tradition. Three of these, Jean-Joseph Rabéarivelo (1903-37), Jacques Rabémananjara (b. 1913) and Flavien Ranaïvo (b. 1914), were made famous by their inclusion in L.S. Senghor's Anthologie de la nouvelle poésie nègre et malgache (Anthology of the