Ici-Paris is one of France's main weekly scandal sheets, euphemistically classified as the 'escapist press' (presse d'évasion). Founded in 1945 by Henri and Suzanne de Montfort, as successor to their Resistance newspaper, Ici-Paris soon changed to target a lowbrow market, featuring horoscopes, titillating love intrigues, cartoons and society gossip. Locked in permanent battle to outdo its main competitor, France-Dimanche, it has consistently plumbed the depths of outrageous, shocking and far-fetched reportage, drawing on bizarre tales of the occult, gory accounts of medical mishaps, exposés of secrets, and in particular the intimate detail of marriages and divorces. It has made a speciality of speculatively probing the private lives of internationally known figures in politics or entertainment, often printing wholly fictitious accounts, and focusing with particular relish on Europe's royal families, especially that of Britain; for example, since the 1960s it has regularly headlined lurid announcements of the (secret) abdication, blindness, terminal illness or death of Queen Elizabeth II. Its circulation rose to a high point of 1.2 million in 1970, but fell in the 1990s to a third of that level. Like France-Dimanche, it is now owned by the powerful Hachette publishing group.
See also: national press in France
Like other same-suffix terms, iconography designates both the object of investigation and the investigative method itself (for most current scholarly purposes, Panofsky's distinction between iconography as description-cum-classification, and iconology as interpretation, is largely disregarded). Originally devotional or monarchical images, icons (from the Greek eikon) gradually acquired the triple functions of identification, mobilization and allegorical narrative. In increasingly secular societies, iconography expresses the beliefs and objectives of different sociocultural groups, from football clubs to political parties, and, like other forms of symbolic discourse which connote as well as denote, is capable of overdetermination and ideological recuperation with changing historical circumstances.
The Revolution of 1789 launched, and the nineteenth century consolidated, a particular iconographical and symbolic lexicon (allegorical female figures, Phrygian bonnet, Republican fasces, etc.), energetically idealized in works such as Rude's sculpted Départ des volontaires (also known as La Marseillaise) and Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People (La Liberté guidant le peuple). It was, however, the emergence in the 1920s of the antagonistic ideologies of Communism and Fascism which produced the