Encyclopedia of Contemporary French Culture

By Alex Hughes; Keith Reader | Go to book overview

I

Ici-Paris

Newspaper

Ici-Paris is one of France's main weekly scandal sheets, euphemistically classified as the 'escapist press' (presse d'évasion). Founded in 1945 by Henri and Suzanne de Montfort, as successor to their Resistance newspaper, Ici-Paris soon changed to target a lowbrow market, featuring horoscopes, titillating love intrigues, cartoons and society gossip. Locked in permanent battle to outdo its main competitor, France-Dimanche, it has consistently plumbed the depths of outrageous, shocking and far-fetched reportage, drawing on bizarre tales of the occult, gory accounts of medical mishaps, exposés of secrets, and in particular the intimate detail of marriages and divorces. It has made a speciality of speculatively probing the private lives of internationally known figures in politics or entertainment, often printing wholly fictitious accounts, and focusing with particular relish on Europe's royal families, especially that of Britain; for example, since the 1960s it has regularly headlined lurid announcements of the (secret) abdication, blindness, terminal illness or death of Queen Elizabeth II. Its circulation rose to a high point of 1.2 million in 1970, but fell in the 1990s to a third of that level. Like France-Dimanche, it is now owned by the powerful Hachette publishing group.

MICHAEL KELLY

See also: national press in France

iconography

Like other same-suffix terms, iconography designates both the object of investigation and the investigative method itself (for most current scholarly purposes, Panofsky's distinction between iconography as description-cum-classification, and iconology as interpretation, is largely disregarded). Originally devotional or monarchical images, icons (from the Greek eikon) gradually acquired the triple functions of identification, mobilization and allegorical narrative. In increasingly secular societies, iconography expresses the beliefs and objectives of different sociocultural groups, from football clubs to political parties, and, like other forms of symbolic discourse which connote as well as denote, is capable of overdetermination and ideological recuperation with changing historical circumstances.

The Revolution of 1789 launched, and the nineteenth century consolidated, a particular iconographical and symbolic lexicon (allegorical female figures, Phrygian bonnet, Republican fasces, etc.), energetically idealized in works such as Rude's sculpted Départ des volontaires (also known as La Marseillaise) and Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People (La Liberté guidant le peuple). It was, however, the emergence in the 1920s of the antagonistic ideologies of Communism and Fascism which produced the

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Encyclopedia of Contemporary French Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface x
  • Introduction xi
  • Acknowledgements xiii
  • Classified Contents List xiv
  • A 1
  • Further Reading 3
  • Further Reading 13
  • Further Reading 18
  • Further Reading 26
  • Further Reading 27
  • Further Reading 30
  • B 44
  • Further Reading 66
  • Further Reading 70
  • Major Works 79
  • C 85
  • Further Reading 91
  • Further Reading 99
  • Further Reading 111
  • Further Reading 113
  • D 135
  • Further Reading 144
  • Further Reading 150
  • Major Works 152
  • E 168
  • Further Reading 194
  • F 197
  • Further Reading 200
  • Further Reading 207
  • Major Works 214
  • Further Reading 245
  • G 252
  • Further Reading 279
  • Further Reading 280
  • H 283
  • I 290
  • Further Reading 297
  • J 302
  • Further Reading 303
  • Major Works 307
  • K 310
  • Further Reading 317
  • L 318
  • Major Works 324
  • Major Works 325
  • M 350
  • Further Reading 352
  • Further Reading 354
  • Major Works 364
  • Further Reading 379
  • Further Reading 380
  • N 388
  • Further Reading 397
  • O 401
  • P 404
  • Further Reading 419
  • Major Works 424
  • Q 449
  • R 450
  • Further Reading 462
  • Further Reading 469
  • Major Works 470
  • Major Works 472
  • Further Reading 474
  • S 478
  • Further Reading 484
  • Further Reading 508
  • T 515
  • U 540
  • V 544
  • Further Reading 549
  • Further Reading 554
  • W 555
  • Further Reading 560
  • X 568
  • Y 569
  • Index 572
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