Encyclopedia of Contemporary French Culture

By Alex Hughes; Keith Reader | Go to book overview

Further reading

Jefferson, A. and Robey, D. (eds) (1986) Modern Literary Theory, London: B.T. Batsford (has several clear sections on Jakobson's poetics and a bibliography).

Jarre, Jean-Michel

b. 1948, Lyon

Composer and musician

Jean-Michel Jarre is France's most famous and commercially successful popular composer and musician of the modern era. His unprecedented success-based on technical and technological innovations with synthesizers, such as his semicircular 'Magic Keyboard' and his famous Laser Harp-has guaranteed him huge audiences worldwide: for example, 1 million spectators for his Bastille Day concert in the Place de la Concorde in 1979, 150,000 spectators at five concerts in Peking and Shanghai in 1982 (with 30 million watching on television and 500 million listening on radio), and 1.3 million people at his free concert in Houston in 1986 (a feat which won him his second entry in the Guinness Book of Records). Worldwide record, tape, CD and video sales are now almost impossible to calculate, but record sales alone were of the order of 32 million by 1986.

Jarre's family contained a number of musicians and it was therefore not surprising that he began to learn the piano at the age of 5. While he was still at the Lycée Michelet, he took lessons in harmony, counterpoint and fugue with Jeannine Rueff of the Paris Conservatory. He also learned to play the electric guitar before gaining his degree and joining the Groupe de Recherches Musicales (Musical Research Group) in 1968. The direction his career was to take was now clear: seeking to create something other than conventional or classical music, he experimented with a new acoustic world that went beyond traditional scales and musical notation. The initial result was The Cage (1970), a piece of pure electronic music, followed in 1971 by the audacious but eminently successful introduction of his avant-garde music to the Paris Opera with AOR. The experimental Deserted Palace followed in 1972.

Jarre now diversified his activities by writing music for films, television, advertisements and other performers, not to mention compositions for ballet and the theatre. His first recording intended for release, the revolutionary Oxygène, dates from 1976 and became the best-selling French record of all time, topping the charts worldwide. This instant success brought with it prestigious accolades at home and abroad (the Grand Prix de l'Académie Charles Cros in France, and 'personality of the year' awarded by People magazine in the USA), while his achievements were recognized by the world's press ('Jean-Michel Jarre Oxygenius', proclaimed Interview; 'A French revolution to rock the world' announced the Daily Mirror). The world of popular music had been introduced to new sounds-electronic in origin but vibrant with emotion and rich in their powers of suggestion.

Jarre's second album, Equinoxe (1978), confirmed his international status and encouraged him to break new ground in the realm of live performance. The result was the spectacular and highly innovative Bastille Day concert of 1979 which, in addition to attracting the (then) record-breaking number of spectators, was seen by a television audience of some 100 million. On a personal level, this live concert allowed Jarre to realize one of his ambitions: the re-establishment of the free, 'open-house' musical festival. On a commercial level, it also led to the production of France's first 'full-length' video featuring a popular concert (though the duration-forty minutes-may seem short by current standards). Further successes have followed, such as Magnetic Fields, Zoolooks, Rendez-Vous, Waiting for Cousteau, and Jarre made a huge impact on the United Kingdom with his much-acclaimed Docklands Concerts (1988). Jarre continues to produce innovative, emotionally charged music of the highest quality and to perform in multi-


Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Cite this page

Cited page

Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Encyclopedia of Contemporary French Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface x
  • Introduction xi
  • Acknowledgements xiii
  • Classified Contents List xiv
  • A 1
  • Further Reading 3
  • Further Reading 13
  • Further Reading 18
  • Further Reading 26
  • Further Reading 27
  • Further Reading 30
  • B 44
  • Further Reading 66
  • Further Reading 70
  • Major Works 79
  • C 85
  • Further Reading 91
  • Further Reading 99
  • Further Reading 111
  • Further Reading 113
  • D 135
  • Further Reading 144
  • Further Reading 150
  • Major Works 152
  • E 168
  • Further Reading 194
  • F 197
  • Further Reading 200
  • Further Reading 207
  • Major Works 214
  • Further Reading 245
  • G 252
  • Further Reading 279
  • Further Reading 280
  • H 283
  • I 290
  • Further Reading 297
  • J 302
  • Further Reading 303
  • Major Works 307
  • K 310
  • Further Reading 317
  • L 318
  • Major Works 324
  • Major Works 325
  • M 350
  • Further Reading 352
  • Further Reading 354
  • Major Works 364
  • Further Reading 379
  • Further Reading 380
  • N 388
  • Further Reading 397
  • O 401
  • P 404
  • Further Reading 419
  • Major Works 424
  • Q 449
  • R 450
  • Further Reading 462
  • Further Reading 469
  • Major Works 470
  • Major Works 472
  • Further Reading 474
  • S 478
  • Further Reading 484
  • Further Reading 508
  • T 515
  • U 540
  • V 544
  • Further Reading 549
  • Further Reading 554
  • W 555
  • Further Reading 560
  • X 568
  • Y 569
  • Index 572


Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 619

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    New feature

    It is estimated that 1 in 10 people have dyslexia, and in an effort to make Questia easier to use for those people, we have added a new choice of font to the Reader. That font is called OpenDyslexic, and has been designed to help with some of the symptoms of dyslexia. For more information on this font, please visit OpenDyslexic.org.

    To use OpenDyslexic, choose it from the Typeface list in Font settings.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search


    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.