Encyclopedia of Contemporary French Culture

By Alex Hughes; Keith Reader | Go to book overview

Further reading

l
Lacouture, J. (1973) André Malraux, Paris: Éditions du Seuil (biography).
Looseley, D.L. (1995) The Politics of Fun: Cultural Policy and Debate in Contemporary France, Oxford: Berg (examines Malraux the minister).

Malraux act

This law, passed in 1962 and named after André Malraux (then Minister of Cultural Affairs), legislated for the protection, development and restructuring of historically significant urban areas (secteurs sauvegardés), in the face of modern urban expansion. The act influenced conservation strategies adopted by other European governments of the 1960s, notably that of the UK.

ALEX HUGHES

See also: architecture; conservation zones; renovation projects

Man Ray

b. 1890, Philadelphia, USA;

d. 1976, Paris

Photographer and artist

Trained as a painter, Man Ray discovered the work of Duchamp and Picabia at the 1913 Armory Show. The following year he began taking photographs, originally to reproduce his paintings. He went to Paris in 1921 and was part of the Dadaist and then Surrealist movements, whose members he famously photographed. His work includes such celebrated photographic images as Ingres's Violin (Le Violon d'Ingres) of 1924 and Tears (Larmes) from 1930. He spent 1940 to 1951 in the United States, where he had several one-man shows, painted a great deal and, again, photographed many of the great writers and painters of the period. He was the inventor of several photographic techniques, particularly using light effects such as solarizations and 'rayographs', a personal variant of the photogram.

DEBRA KELLY

See also: photography


Major works

m
Man Ray (1963) Self Portrait, London: André Deutsch (an autobiography in which he also explains his techniques).

management style

The management style of the French has often been criticized for being overly authoritarian and distant. Indeed, the traditional French approach to management is seen as partly to blame for the confrontational nature of industrial relations in France. In order to understand how this management style developed, it is necessary to trace the history of the French management class, les cadres.

Small family-run firms continued to dominate the economy in France until much later than in its main competitor countries, and this had a significant influence on French management style. In such companies, the owner, or patron, retained much everyday control of the labour force and the production process. In other words, there was no distinction to be made between the owners of these businesses and their managers. Unsurprisingly, these petits patrons were often authoritarian and paternalistic in their dealings with their workforce.

It was only in the larger companies in the 1930s that a new class grew up in French industry situated between the patronat on the one hand, and the workers on the other. This new class was that of the cadres. This category of employee normally constituted the engineers who took control of production processes,

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Encyclopedia of Contemporary French Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface x
  • Introduction xi
  • Acknowledgements xiii
  • Classified Contents List xiv
  • A 1
  • Further Reading 3
  • Further Reading 13
  • Further Reading 18
  • Further Reading 26
  • Further Reading 27
  • Further Reading 30
  • B 44
  • Further Reading 66
  • Further Reading 70
  • Major Works 79
  • C 85
  • Further Reading 91
  • Further Reading 99
  • Further Reading 111
  • Further Reading 113
  • D 135
  • Further Reading 144
  • Further Reading 150
  • Major Works 152
  • E 168
  • Further Reading 194
  • F 197
  • Further Reading 200
  • Further Reading 207
  • Major Works 214
  • Further Reading 245
  • G 252
  • Further Reading 279
  • Further Reading 280
  • H 283
  • I 290
  • Further Reading 297
  • J 302
  • Further Reading 303
  • Major Works 307
  • K 310
  • Further Reading 317
  • L 318
  • Major Works 324
  • Major Works 325
  • M 350
  • Further Reading 352
  • Further Reading 354
  • Major Works 364
  • Further Reading 379
  • Further Reading 380
  • N 388
  • Further Reading 397
  • O 401
  • P 404
  • Further Reading 419
  • Major Works 424
  • Q 449
  • R 450
  • Further Reading 462
  • Further Reading 469
  • Major Works 470
  • Major Works 472
  • Further Reading 474
  • S 478
  • Further Reading 484
  • Further Reading 508
  • T 515
  • U 540
  • V 544
  • Further Reading 549
  • Further Reading 554
  • W 555
  • Further Reading 560
  • X 568
  • Y 569
  • Index 572
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