See also: theatre
b. 1947, Boulogne-sur-Seine
Modiano's early work-such as La Place de l'étoile (1968) and Les Boulevards de ceinture (The Ring Road) (1972)-was among the first to deal graphically with the period of the Occupation, before it became virtually de rigueur to do so. His screenplay for Malle's Lacombe Lucien (1973) brought this theme to an even wider audience. His more recent work, such as Une jeunesse (Youth) (1981) or Un cirque passe (A Passing Circus) (1992), may have a more contemporary setting, but is unceasingly worked and reworked by memories of the past.
b. 1905, Flers, Normandy;
d. 1975, Paris
As leader of the Parti Socialiste-SFIO between 1946 and 1969, Mollet presided over the decline of a party caught between its unrevised revolutionary doctrine and its reformist practice. As prime minister in 1956 he stepped up the repression of the independence movement in French Algeria. In the same year he joined with the British to organize the ill-fated Suez expedition. He facilitated de Gaulle's return to power in the wake of the May 1958 crisis, but in the 1960s took his party into electoral agreements with the Communists in order to combat the Gaullists. His absolute loyalty to the traditions of his own party tended to block any significant renewal of the Left.
See also: Algerian war; parties and movements
An opinion-forming daily of international repute, Le Monde is the most comprehensive French newspaper, providing in-depth analysis of national news and unparalleled international coverage. An evening paper, it is an indispensable, authoritative source of information for the ruling classes, intellectuals and highly educated sections of the population, and can be relied upon to publish official reports from organizations otherwise neglected by the press.
Austere in appearance, with a dense layout and rare photographs, its tone is sober, restrained, even dry, and its style polished, elevated and analytical. Committed to a noble conception of journalism, Le Monde aspires to balanced, impartial reporting, and does not hesitate to criticize. While independent of political parties, it is the forum for much political debate. It is socially progressive and left of centre, demonstrating a commitment to justice and human rights.
The newspaper was founded by Hubert Beuve-Méry on 18 December 1944 at the