b. 1951, France
Playwright and director
A collaborator and dramaturg for Jean-Paul Wenzel at the Centre Dramatique National (CDN) at Les Fédérés, Montluçon, Namiand is the author of many works, some of them performed at the CDN and directed by Wenzel. They include Surtout quand la nuit tombe (Especially When Night Falls) and Sang blanc (White Blood). Her adaptations include works by Maupassant and Koestler.
See also: theatre
National Cinematographic Centre
The Centre National de la Cinematographic (CNC) is a state institution created in 1946 and is the overseeing body for the French film industry. Notionally an autonomous decision-making body, it is composed of different committees whose remit is to foster the well-being of France's cinema by allocating funds to successful applications. It is charged with maintaining control over the financing of films, the receipts from box-office takings and statistics pertaining to the totality of film practices. The CNC manages funds that support the industry, the Compte de soutien, which takes two forms: the soutien automatique (1948) and the avance sur recettes (1960).
See also: cinema
national press in France
The French press reflects the country's geographical, cultural and political diversity in a wide range of publications, including local, regional and national newspapers, and a particularly thriving magazine sector which caters for every specialist interest and leisure pursuit. However, when compared to other nations, the French read relatively few dailies: only half as many as the British and Germans, and a quarter of the number read in Finland and Sweden. Despite a rich intellectual and political heritage, international comparisons of the number of dailies sold per capita place France in a lowly twenty-third position in the world rankings. Moreover, approximately 70 per cent of the total circulation of French dailies is accounted for by provincial titles.
The Paris-based daily press has declined dramatically since the beginning of the century. In 1914 there were eighty newspapers printing a total of 5.5 million copies each day. By 1939 the