See also: song/chanson
b. 1896, Neuchâtel, Switzerland;
d. 1980, Geneva
A developmental psychologist, specializing in the maturation of children's intelligence, but trained as a biologist, Piaget first became interested in psychology through observing the intellectual development of his own children, who provide the evidence for his earliest studies, such as The Language and Thought of the Child (Le Langage et la pensée chez l'enfant) (1923). His analysis of the emergent process of reasoning in children through a mechanism of 'reflexive abstraction' based on their interaction with the material world led him to a generalized theory of knowledge which he called Genetic Epistemology (Épistémologie génétique) (1970). His thinking has been widely influential in educational theory and has inspired controversial new methods of teaching basic logical and mathematical skills to primary school children.
b. 1925, Puy-de-Dôme
His career started in 1960 with intense psychological dramas in a realist idiom, such as L'Enfance nue (1969) and La Gueule ouverte (1974, with Baye and Philippe Léotard). In the 1980s, his films used stars and reached a wider public: Loulou (in 1980), with Depardieu); A nos amours (1983), with Bonnaire, seen as a key film of the 1980s; Police (1985), with Depardieu and Marceau; and Sous le soleil de Satan (1987), with Bonnaire and Depardieu.
See also: cinema
b. 1881, Malaga, Spain;
d. 1973, Mougins, France
The twentieth century's most celebrated artist, Picasso's prolific production includes sculpture, printmaking, ceramics, stage design, book illustrations and writing, as well as paintings and drawings. Although Spanish by birth, Picasso lived and worked most of his adult life in France and was closely associated with the Parisian avant-garde before World War I. In 1907, he created the founding work of Cubism, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon. In the 1920s, he was associated with the Surrealist movement.