Profundity), appeared in 1955. After this, he went on to produce several more books on poetry. His work is characterized principally by techniques of close reading, that is, of subjecting segments of text to particularly detailed interpretive scrutiny. This penetrating approach may be most readily appreciated in his Proust et le monde sensible (Proust and the World of the Senses) of 1974, Microlectures (Microreadings) in 1979, and Onze études sur la poésie moderne (Eleven Studies on Modern Poetry) in 1981. He has also published works on the novelist Céline and the poet Mallarmé.
b. 1913, France
Paul Ricoeur is one of the most respected French philosophers. Trained at the Sorbonne, he blended Husserl's phenomenology with his Protestant faith, and developed an ethical philosophy much influenced by the Socialist ideas of André Philip. After the war, he incorporated elements of Freudian psychoanalyis into his thought and, during regular visits to the United States, explored analytical philosophy, becoming a channel through which the 'linguistic turn' of English-speaking philosophers was introduced into French thought. He also joined Mounier's review Esprit, for which he wrote the philosophy column. After the events of May 1968, he supported university reform and moved from the Sorbonne to become rector of Nanterre, but resigned after sustained attacks from radical students and staff. Thereafter, he mainly taught in the United States, at Yale and Chicago, while still working in Paris as a CNRS director of research, and from 1974 as editor of the prestigious Moral and Metaphysical Review (Revue de métaphysique et de morale). His three-volume Time and Narrative (Temps et récit) published between 1983 and 1985 examines how time and narrative are interlinked in historical, literary and philosophical writing, and has become the most influential of Ricoeur's works, which are widely read in the English-speaking world.
See also: Catholicism and Protestantism
Rita Mitsouko, Les
A rock double act which began in the 1980s-Rita is the singer Catherine Ringer, and Mitsouko is Fred Chichin the musician-and was successful throughout the 1990s. Their whole repertory is definitely eclectic, they have been iconoclastic on the world stage, and their musical style is baroque in the sense of being grotesque, whimsical, imaginative and at times disturbing. Their videos earned them the Prix Euro MTV in 1994, when the album Système D was released.
See also: pop video; rock and pop
b. 1928, Rouen
Rivette followed the path from Cahiers du cinema criticism to direction in 1958, when he