Freaks, Geeks, and Cool Kids: American Teenagers, Schools, and the Culture of Consumption

By Murray Milner Jr. | Go to book overview

NOTES

A NOTE ON NOTES

Citations to the literature are given in shortened form. For the full citation see the Bibliography. Many endnotes clarify or qualify points in the text, provide supporting data, or discuss connections with previous research.
Three hundred papers written by college students describing their high school are one of the data sources used in this study. These are referred to as Student Papers, abbreviated SP. In order for the reader to be able to see both the variety of sources and when the same sources are being used again, each paper has been given a number. When that paper is quoted or is central to the discussion, its number is indicated in the endnotes, for example: "SP53."
Field notes from thirty-five fieldworkers who participated in the study of a single high school, called WWHS, are also quoted. Each fieldworker has been assigned a number and this number is given in the endnote or in a parenthesis for a particular quote, for example: "FW16." About half of the students in this high school were African Americans. The race of the field-worker might affect the nature of the responses and candor shown by students. Therefore, the numbers of African-American fieldworkers have been shown in italics, for example: FW8. Most of the time the context or the material itself makes evident the race of the students involved. I have not systematically indicated the gender of the fieldworkers, but this can often be discerned from the context.

PREFACE

1.
My experience with the police is reported in Baker et al. (1969), Police on Campus. I was one of the six co-authors of this monograph.

INTRODUCTION

1.
While the information about teenage "deviant behavior" is extensive and complex, let me outline a few of the facts about these matters. Homicide victimization rates and offending rates for teenagers (14- to 17-year-olds) and 18- to 24-year-olds rose dramatically in the 1980s and declined in the 1990s. "The homicides committed by 14-17-year-olds exploded after 1985, surpassing the rates of 25-34-year-olds and 35-49-year-olds." Source: U.S. Dept. of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/homicide/teens.htm, January 2001. Rates of teenage alcohol consumption show that between 15-20 percent of eighth graders consume 5+ drinks in a row each weekend while over 30 percent of twelfth graders consume the same amount. Over 70 percent of eighth graders and 95 percent of twelfth graders say that it is "fairly easy" or "very easy" to get alcohol. See http://www.monitoringthefuture.org/data/00data/fig00_10.pdf,

-239-

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Freaks, Geeks, and Cool Kids: American Teenagers, Schools, and the Culture of Consumption
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents ix
  • Preface xi
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • Part I - The Puzzle and the Tools 1
  • Introduction 3
  • Chapter One - Why Do They Behave like That? 13
  • Chapter Two - The Tools for Understanding 27
  • Part II - Explaining Teens' Behavior 37
  • Chapter Three - Fitting In, Standing Out, and Keeping Up 39
  • Chapter Four - Steering Clear, Hanging Out, and Hooking Up 61
  • Chapter Five - Exchanges, Labels, and Put-Downs 81
  • Part III - Why Schools Vary 97
  • Chapter Six - The Pluralistic High School 99
  • Chapter Seven - Other Kinds of Schools 131
  • Part IV - Teen Status Systems and Consumerism 153
  • Chapter Eight - Creating Consumers 155
  • Chapter Nine - Consuming Life 171
  • Chapter Ten - Conclusions and Implications 181
  • Appendix I 203
  • Appendix II 217
  • Appendix III 223
  • Notes 239
  • Bibliography 285
  • Index 299
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