Biographical Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Philosophers

By Stuart Brown; Diané Collinson et al. | Go to book overview

Main publications:
Anderson wrote no books, but published a number of philosophical articles, mostly in the Australasian Journal of Philosophy. Since his death, the following collections of his articles have appeared:
(1962) Studies in Empirical Philosophy, Sydney: Angus & Robertson (contains a valuable introductory essay by John Passmore).
(1980) Education and Enquiry, ed. D.Z. Phillips, Oxford: Blackwell.
(1982) Art and Reality, ed. Janet Anderson, G. Cullum and K. Lycos, Sydney: Hale & Iremonger.

Secondary literature:
Baker, A.J. (1986 Australian Realism: The Systematic Philosophy of John Anderson, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bogdan, Radu J. (ed.) (1984) David Armstrong, Dordrecht: Reidel.
Grave, S.A. (1976) Philosophy in Australia Since 1958, Sydney: Sydney University Press.
Mackie, J. (1951) 'Logic and Professor Anderson', Australasian Journal of Philosophy 29:109-13.
Ryle, G. (1950) 'Logic and Professor Anderson', Australasian Journal of Philosophy 28:137-53.

Anderson attempted to develop a systematic philosophy of naturalism and realism, grounded in the view that there is only one realm of being, that of events and processes in space and time. There are no Platonic forms or universals, no souls distinct from bodies, and no God. A healthy-minded philosophy should remorselessly criticize such illusions.

Knowledge, for Anderson, is always based on descriptions of matters of fact (events in space and time). Concering a priori knowledge, he took a strongly empiricist position, denying any sharp distinction between the 'rational sciences' (logic and mathematics) and the natural sciences, and insisting that the former are merely extremely general forms of scientific enquiry. Philosophy is conceived as continuous with science rather than distinct from it, a claim that provoked a critical response from Gilbert Ryle.

In ethics Anderson adopted a somewhat idiosyncratic position, dismissing the concepts of 'right', 'ought' and 'duty' as empty and outmoded relics from the Age of Faith. (What is a command without a commander?) 'Good', by contrast, names a straightforwardly descriptive property of certain human activities-those that are free, creative, productive, enterprising, intelligent and risky. Like Nietzsche, Anderson regarded Christian ethics as the morality of slaves.

In his social and political philosophy, Anderson opposed atomistic individualism, arguing for the reality of irreducibly social forces and movements. He nevertheless opposed 'solidarism', the view that there is such a thing as the common good. Every society, he argues, is made up of conflicting and opposed forces, with no prospect of reconciliation. In his influential writings on education he develops these ideas further, urging that the aim of education should not be 'socialization' but the development of the child's critical intelligence.

In both ethics and aesthetics Anderson's naturalism led him to reject all forms of relativism. Just as 'good' names a natural property of certain human activities (a property just as objective as temperature), so 'beautiful' names a natural property found in art and nature. It cannot be reduced to 'pleasing', which clearly denotes a relation rather than quality. Although he wrote little, and few of his papers were read outside Australia, Anderson was an enormously influential teacher. He was largely responsible for creating, at Sydney in particular, a distinctive new style of Australian philosophy, based on a no-nonsense realism, tending towards materialism, a thoroughgoing naturalism, and a moderate empiricism closer to Locke than to Berkeley and Hume. Although he did not anticipate the identity theory of Place, Smart and Armstrong, his teaching helped to create a philosophical climate sympathetic to that development. His students at Sydney included such figures as David Stove, John Mackie, David Armstrong and John Passmore.

Sources: Passmore 1957; Passmore's introduction to Anderson's Studies 1962; Anthony Quinton's introduction to Baker 1986.


Andreas-Salomé, Lou

Russian, b: 12 February 1861, St Petersburg, d: 5 February 1937, Göttingen, Germany. Cat: Nietzschean; philosopher of love, sexuality and woman; psychoanalytic writer; philosopher of religion. Educ: Philosophy and the History of Religion, with Pastor Hendrik Gillot, in St Petersburg, 1879-80; attended university lectures in Philosophy, Theology and Art History in Zurich, 1880-81; attended Freud's classes in Vienna, 1912-13. Infls: Nietzsche, Freud, Rainer Maria Rilke and Spinoza.


Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Cite this page

Cited page

Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Biographical Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Philosophers
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction vii
  • List of Abbreviated Sources xvi
  • List of Schools and Movements xxi
  • A 1
  • Main Publications: 19
  • Main Publications: 22
  • Main Publications: 24
  • Main Publications: 25
  • Main Publications: 29
  • B 41
  • Main Publications: 97
  • C - Cabral, Amilcar Lopes 119
  • Main Publications: 148
  • D 167
  • E 209
  • F 222
  • G 261
  • H 296
  • Main Publications: 323
  • Main Publications: 330
  • I 361
  • Main Publications: 365
  • J 370
  • Main Publications: 385
  • K 387
  • Main Publications: 405
  • Main Publications: 423
  • L 425
  • M 486
  • Main Publications: 491
  • Main Publications: 498
  • Main Publications: 540
  • N 558
  • Main Publications: 577
  • O 583
  • P 593
  • Main Publications: 605
  • Main Publications: 614
  • Main Publications: 626
  • Q 640
  • R 644
  • Main Publications: 657
  • S 690
  • Main Publications: 701
  • Main Publications: 704
  • T 764
  • U 795
  • V 800
  • W 817
  • Main Publications: 827
  • Main Publications: 833
  • Main Publications: 851
  • X 853
  • Y 857
  • Z 861
  • Guide to Schools and Movements 876
  • Bibliography 893
  • Nationality Index 903
  • Category Index 909
  • Index of Interests 918
  • Index of Influences 925
  • Index of People 936
  • Index of Subjects 945


Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 947

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

    New feature

    It is estimated that 1 in 10 people have dyslexia, and in an effort to make Questia easier to use for those people, we have added a new choice of font to the Reader. That font is called OpenDyslexic, and has been designed to help with some of the symptoms of dyslexia. For more information on this font, please visit

    To use OpenDyslexic, choose it from the Typeface list in Font settings.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search


    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.