Biographical Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Philosophers

By Stuart Brown; Diané Collinson et al. | Go to book overview

Main publications:
(1950) Espiritualismo y positivismo en el Uruguay, Buenos Aires: Fondo de Cultura Económica.
(1951) Batlle y Ordóñez y el positivismo filosófico, Montevideo, Uruguay: Número.
(1956) La filosofia en el Uruguay en el siglo XX, Buenos Aires: Fondo de Cultura Económica.
(1962) Racionalismo y liberalismo en el Uruguay, Montevideo, Uruguay: Universidad de la República.
(1963) Filosofia de lengua española, Montevideo: Alfa.
(1970) Rodó: su americanisme, Montevideo: Uruguay, Biblioteca de Marcha.
(1971) Etapas de la inteligencia Uruguay a, Montevideo, Uruguay: Universidad de la República.
(1978) Estudios latinoamericanos: historia de las ideas, Caracas, Venezuela: Monte Avila Editores.
(1983) Espacio e inteligencia, Caracas, Venezuela: Equinoccio.
(1986) Andrés Bello, filósofo, Caracas, Venezuela: Academia Nacional de la Historia.
(1987) La inteligencia latinoamericana, Montevideo, Uruguay: Dirección General de Extensión Universitaria, Division de Publicaciones y Ediciones.

Secondary literature:
Coloquio Nacional de Filosofïa (1976) La filosofía actual en America Latina, Mexico: Editorial Grijalbo.

Arturo Ardao is a major scholar of the history of ideas in Latin America. His early work dealt with the opposition between positivism and spiritualism in the latter part of the nineteenth century. Ardao is a leading scholar on the work of Uruguay's most prominent twentieth-century philosopher, Carlos Vaz Ferreira, as well as on other influential Latin American thinkers.


Ardigò, Roberto

Italian. b: 28 January 1928, Casteldione, Cremona, Italy, d: 15 September 1920, Mantua. Cat: Positivist. Appts: Professor of the History of Philosophy, Padua, 1881-1909.

Main publications:
(1870) Psicologia come scienza positiva.
(1877) La formazione naturale del sistema solare.
(1885) La morale dei positivisti.
(1886) Sociologia.
(1891) Il vero.
(1894) La ragione.
(1898) L'unita della coscienza.
(1908) Opere filosofiche, second edition, Padua: Draghi.

Secondary literature:
Dal Covolo, A (1985) Roberto Ardigò, Rome: Citta Nuova.
Gentile, A. (1988) La religione civile, Naples: Edizione Scientifiche Italiane.
Mandolf, S. (1966) I positivisti italiani, Padua: CEDAM.
Marchesini, G. (1922) Roberto Ardigö: l'uomo e I'umanista, Florence: Le Monnier.

After studying classics Ardigò entered the priesthood and taught philosophy at Mantua. Following a long crisis of faith his thinking took a positivistic turn, rejecting every form of transcendence, and he left the priesthood. In the heyday of late nineteenth-century positivism Ardigò was its chief representative in Italy, his thought contrasting, however, with such positivists as Spencer. Spencer argued that philosophy does not have its own subject matter but is reducible to the particular sciences. Ardigò thought that philosophy was not merely the collection of these sciences. It was, first, the special disciplines concerned with the phenomena of thought (including logic and ethics). It is also 'peratology', the study of the indistinct which lies outside the subject matter of science, the distinct. Ardigò also used the notion of the indistinct to rework Spencer's evolutionism, claiming that the formation of everything, from the solar system downwards, is a journey from the indistinct to the distinct. The distinct and finite never exhausts the infinitude of the indistinct. Evolution is endless. Ardigò, like many positivists, was sceptical about free will. He wished, however, to mitigate the determinism of many positivists, and believed in a degree of unpredictable chance in sequences of events. The self and natural things are syntheses of sensations and differ only in the nature of the synthesis (a view later to be found in Mach). Human freedom, therefore, is an effect of the unpredictability of sequences that constitute our psychic lives. Ardigò's moral philosophy, fiercely critical of religious and rationalist ethics, has-like that of Comte and Spencer-a sociological basis. Society, through judicial norms and sanctions, causally produces the altruistic sentiment of moral obligation and an ever growing hope for justice that far exceeds its causal origins.



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Biographical Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Philosophers
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction vii
  • List of Abbreviated Sources xvi
  • List of Schools and Movements xxi
  • A 1
  • Main Publications: 19
  • Main Publications: 22
  • Main Publications: 24
  • Main Publications: 25
  • Main Publications: 29
  • B 41
  • Main Publications: 97
  • C - Cabral, Amilcar Lopes 119
  • Main Publications: 148
  • D 167
  • E 209
  • F 222
  • G 261
  • H 296
  • Main Publications: 323
  • Main Publications: 330
  • I 361
  • Main Publications: 365
  • J 370
  • Main Publications: 385
  • K 387
  • Main Publications: 405
  • Main Publications: 423
  • L 425
  • M 486
  • Main Publications: 491
  • Main Publications: 498
  • Main Publications: 540
  • N 558
  • Main Publications: 577
  • O 583
  • P 593
  • Main Publications: 605
  • Main Publications: 614
  • Main Publications: 626
  • Q 640
  • R 644
  • Main Publications: 657
  • S 690
  • Main Publications: 701
  • Main Publications: 704
  • T 764
  • U 795
  • V 800
  • W 817
  • Main Publications: 827
  • Main Publications: 833
  • Main Publications: 851
  • X 853
  • Y 857
  • Z 861
  • Guide to Schools and Movements 876
  • Bibliography 893
  • Nationality Index 903
  • Category Index 909
  • Index of Interests 918
  • Index of Influences 925
  • Index of People 936
  • Index of Subjects 945


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