An activist and a politician, N'Krumah based his action on the understanding that there is such a thing as an African social reality. This is constituted by the complementarity of a tradition, Christianity and/or Islam, and the legacy of a major aculturation brought about by colonization. The process of a political liberation that he situates between Senghor's spiritualist socialism and Naher's nationalism is presented as an African practice of materialism. Its formalization in Consciencism (1964) has been criticized as vague and questionable.
American, b: 19 January 1929, Irvington, New Jersey. Cat: Feminist philosopher; educator. Ints: Philosophy of education; feminist ethics; mathematical problem-solving. Educ: BA, Mathematics, Montclair Stage College, 1949; MA Mathematics, Rutgers, 1964; PhD Education, Stanford, 1973. Infls: John Dewey, William James and Martin Buber. Appts: Taught mathematics at various high schools, 1949-72; Director of precollegiate education, University of Chicago, 1975-6; Assistant Professor, Pennsylvania State University at State College, 1973; from 1977, Stanford (Full Professor from 1986, Lee L. Jacks Professor of Child Education, from 1992 Associate Dean 1990-2, Acting Dean of Education 1992-3); Phi Beta Kappa Visiting Scholar, 1989-90; Stanford Graduate School of Education Anne Roe Award, 1992; President, John Dewey Society, President, National Philosophy of Education Society, 1992; Member of Board of Directors, Center for Human Caring, School of Nursing, Denver, from 1986; Member of Advisory Board, American Journal of Education and Educational Theory.
Noddings's Caring (1984), along with Gilligan's In a Different Voice (1982), continues to spark off vigorous debate about the fundamental concepts and evaluations in ethics. Anchoring moral behaviour in the goodness of natural caring, Noddings argues that its core is a care-filled receptivity to those involved in moral situations, and hence rejects the rigidity of rule and principle to focus on the particular in human relations.
Women and Evil (1989) explores the sexism of traditional views of evil and how they served to control women. Noddings then takes up the nurturing standpoint of women to develop a morality of evil which aims to help humans live less painfully and fearfully.
Sources: PI; personal communication.
American, b: 27 November 1893, Janeville, Wisconsin, d: 23 July 1992, Exeter, New Hampshire. Cat: Philosopher of science. Ints: Philosophy of law. Educ: Beloit College, BA 1915; Yale University, MA 1919; Harvard University, MA 1922, PhD 1924. Infls: Bakewell, Hocking and Whitehead. Appts: 1923-41, Instructor to Professor of Philosophy, Department Chair (1938-40), Master (1940-7), Silliman College; 1947-62, Sterling Professor of Philosophy and Law (Emeritus Professor, 1962), Yale University.