Biographical Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Philosophers

By Stuart Brown; Diané Collinson et al. | Go to book overview

Main publications:
(1897) Der ontologische Beweis für das Dasein des Absoluten.
(1898) Der Satz vom Grunde: Eine logische Untersuchung.
(1900) Prinzipien der Erkenntnislehre. Prolegomena zur absoluten Metaphysik.
(1904-12) Prinzipien der Metaphysik, 2 vols.
(1907) Die typischen Geometrien unddas Unendliche.
(1921) L'Evolution universelle.
(1930) Hauptsátze der Metaphysik.
Plus works in Serbian on Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Spencer and Hegel.

Secondary literature:
Anthony, R. (1930) 'Résumé des travaux philoso-phiques et scientifiques de B. Petronijevic', Revue Générale des Sciences Pures et Appliquées 50:312ff.

At the heart of Petronijevic's thought is his method, a modified version of Hegelian dialectic (developed in his book of 1904-12). He differs from Hegel in maintaining (i) that dialectic is concerned with contrary rather than contradictory concepts and (ii) that the stage of synthesis is inessential. It can either precede the antithesis, or be absent from the dialectic in those cases where the antithesis presupposes the prior being of the thesis. A synthesis is necessary only in the case where thesis and antithesis are totally mutually exclusive, and this is true for only one pair of contraries, namely One and Many. In this case, there is a synthesis, the notion of a finite class of intensive, continuous points, such that all components have a mutual tendency to separation.

Using this method, Petronijevic sought to reconcile the philosophies of Spinoza and Leibniz (hence his self-designation as a 'monopluralist'). He argues that the universe is evolving from a condition of instability towards one of absolute stability, in which there will be equilibrium in the relation between particular elements or monads and the universal substance which underlies them. This last is the subject of a special division of philosophy, beyond metaphysics, which Petronijevic called 'hypermetaphysics'.


Pfänder, Alexander

German. b: 7 February 1870, Iserlohn, Germany. d: 18 March 1941, Munich. Cat: Phenomenologist. Ints: Philosophical psychology; the human condition. Educ: Polytechnics of Hanover and Munich, and Munich University. Infls: Literary influence: Husserl. Personal: Theodor Lipps, Wilhelm Wundt and Husserl. Appts: 1901-8, Lecturer, 1908-35, Professor, Munich University.

Main publications:
(1900) Phänomenologie des Wollens: eine psychologische Analyse, Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Earth (English translation, together with 'Motive und Motivation' (1911), Phenomenology of Willing and Motivation, trans. Herbert Spiegelberg, Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1967).
(1904) Einführung in die Psychologie [Introduction to Psychology], Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth.
(1911) 'Motive und Motivation', in Münchener philosophische Abhandlungen (Festschrift for Theodor Lipps), ed. A. Pfänder, Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth (English translation, see 1900 above).
(1913-16) Zur Psychologie der Gesinnungen [On the Psychology of Directed Sentiments], parts I and II, Halle: Max Niemeyer.
(1921) Logik [Logic], Halle: Max Niemeyer.
(1933) Die Seele des Menschen [The Human Psyche], Halle: Max Niemeyer.
(1948) Philosophie der Lebensziele [Philosophy and the Goals of Life], ed. Wolfgang Trillhaas, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Rupprecht (posthumous).
(1973) Ethik in kurzer Darstellung [A Concise System of Ethics], ed. Peter Schwankl, Munich: Wilhelm Fink (posthumous).
(1973) Philosophie au fphänomenologischer Grundlage [Philosophy on a Phenomenological Basis], ed. Herbert Spiegelberg, Munich: Wilhelm Fink (posthumous).

Secondary literature:
Schumann, Karl (1973) Die Dialektik der Phänomenologie I: Husserl über Pfänder, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
Spiegelberg, Herbert (1967) The Phenomenology of Willing and Motivation, Evanston: Northwestern University Press (contains a useful introduction and several reprinted essays, as well as the translations mentioned above).
-(1973) 'Is reduction necessary for phenomenology? Husserl's and Pfänder's replies', Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 4:3-15.
-(1974) '“Epoche” without reduction: some replies to my critics', Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 5:256-61.
-(1982) The Phenomenological Movement, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff (contains a substantial section on Pfänder).
-and Avé-Lallemant, Eberhard (1982) Pfänder-Studien, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff (collection of essays and other materials on Pfànder, including


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Biographical Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Philosophers
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction vii
  • List of Abbreviated Sources xvi
  • List of Schools and Movements xxi
  • A 1
  • Main Publications: 19
  • Main Publications: 22
  • Main Publications: 24
  • Main Publications: 25
  • Main Publications: 29
  • B 41
  • Main Publications: 97
  • C - Cabral, Amilcar Lopes 119
  • Main Publications: 148
  • D 167
  • E 209
  • F 222
  • G 261
  • H 296
  • Main Publications: 323
  • Main Publications: 330
  • I 361
  • Main Publications: 365
  • J 370
  • Main Publications: 385
  • K 387
  • Main Publications: 405
  • Main Publications: 423
  • L 425
  • M 486
  • Main Publications: 491
  • Main Publications: 498
  • Main Publications: 540
  • N 558
  • Main Publications: 577
  • O 583
  • P 593
  • Main Publications: 605
  • Main Publications: 614
  • Main Publications: 626
  • Q 640
  • R 644
  • Main Publications: 657
  • S 690
  • Main Publications: 701
  • Main Publications: 704
  • T 764
  • U 795
  • V 800
  • W 817
  • Main Publications: 827
  • Main Publications: 833
  • Main Publications: 851
  • X 853
  • Y 857
  • Z 861
  • Guide to Schools and Movements 876
  • Bibliography 893
  • Nationality Index 903
  • Category Index 909
  • Index of Interests 918
  • Index of Influences 925
  • Index of People 936
  • Index of Subjects 945


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