Biographical Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Philosophers

By Stuart Brown; Diané Collinson et al. | Go to book overview

Main publications:
(1923) Knowledge and Truth, London: Macmillan.
(1931) A Study in Aesthetics, London: Allen & Unwin.
(1937) Creative Morality, London: Allen & Unwin.
(1939) Preface to Faith, London: Allen & Unwin.
(1944) Rediscovery of Belief, London: Lindsey Press.
(1961) Ways of Knowledge and Experience, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(1962) Philosophy and Education, London: Heinemann.
(1969) Meaning in the Arts, New York: Humanities Press.
(1986) Ways of Understanding and Education, London: Heinemann.

Secondary literature:
Collingwood, R.G. (1932) Review of A Study in Aesthetics (1931), in Philosophy 7 (July): 335-7.

In Knowledge and Truth (1923) Reid critically reviewed the whole 'New Realist' theory of knowledge, which had begun with G.E.Moore (Metz, p. 538), to present his own variation of the realist doctrine that in knowledge the mind apprehends something that is 'given'. Reid stressed that knowledge is not a mere passive mirroring of reality but a dynamic activity by which we achieve contact with the objectively real. He defined truth as knowledge which is the apprehension of reality, or a part of it, as it really is. Besides theoretical experience Reid briefly considered aesthetic experience.

This prepared the way for A Study in Aesthetics (1931), a work largely concerned with the special problems in aesthetic, such as the relation between art and truth, art and morality, and the 'kinds' of beauty. Reid's approach implied a treatment of aesthetic as an autonomous philosophical science, not simply as a branch of the theory of perception. In subsequent works, Reid also considered moral experience and religious experience.

In Ways of Knowledge and Experience (1961) Reid surveyed all these various modes of experience synoptically, placing them on a single 'map'. That this mapping had explicit connections to curriculum planning reflected Reid's involvement in the philosophy of education. As first occupant of the Chair in the Philosophy of Education at London, Reid played an important role in establishing the philosophy of education as a special subject taught in British universities.

Sources: Metz; WW.


Reinach, Adolf

German. b: 23 December 1883, Mainz, Germany. d: 16 November 1917, killed in action at Diksmuide, Flanders. Cat: Phenomenologist. Ints: Philosophy of law; social philosophy; epistemology; ethics; logic; philosophy of mathematics; philosophy of religion. Educ: Law, Philosophy and Psychology at Munich, Berlin and Göttingen. Infls: Literary influences include Plato and Hume; personal influences include Edmund Husserl and Theodor Lipps. Appts: 1909-14, Privatdozent, University of Göttingen.

Main publications:
(1911) Kants Auffassung des Humeschen Problems.
(1911) Zur Théorie des negativen Urteils.
(1913) Die apriorischen Grundlagen des bürgerlichen Rechtes.
(1914) Über Phänomenologie.

All included in:
(1989) Sämtliche Werke, Textkritisiche Ausgabe in 2 Bänden, ed. Karl Schuhmann and Barry Smith, Munich: Philosophia Verlag.

Secondary literature:
Burkhardt, A. (1986) Soziale Akte, Sprechakte und Textillokutionen. A. Reinach's Rechtsphilosophie und die moderne Linguistik, Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.
Mulligan, K. (ed.) (1987) Speech: Act and Sachverhalt: Reinach and the Foundations of Realist Phenomenology, Dordrecht, Boston and Lancaster: Martinus Nijhoff.

Reinach was an outstanding exponent of the kind of realist phenomenology inspired by Husserl's Logical Investigations. This understanding of phenomenology is brilliantly artculated in a lecture delivered in 1914 in Marburg, the stronghold of neo-Kantianism. Everything has its 'what', its essence. Phenomenology is the study of essences and relations between essences. We can have a direct access to essences in a non-sensory kind of seeing or intuition (Wesensschau). Relations between essences are a priori. The a priori has, as such, nothing to do with how we think or even how we must think. In his study of the essence of judgement Reinach develops the notion of a state of affairs (Sachverhalt) as that which is believed or asserted. Negative states of affairs can obtain with precisely the same objectivity as positive states of affairs. In the area of the phenomenology of acts his treatment of social acts, i.e. those which essentially stand in need of being heard, is of particular interest. It anticipates later developments in the theory of speech acts.


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Biographical Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Philosophers
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction vii
  • List of Abbreviated Sources xvi
  • List of Schools and Movements xxi
  • A 1
  • Main Publications: 19
  • Main Publications: 22
  • Main Publications: 24
  • Main Publications: 25
  • Main Publications: 29
  • B 41
  • Main Publications: 97
  • C - Cabral, Amilcar Lopes 119
  • Main Publications: 148
  • D 167
  • E 209
  • F 222
  • G 261
  • H 296
  • Main Publications: 323
  • Main Publications: 330
  • I 361
  • Main Publications: 365
  • J 370
  • Main Publications: 385
  • K 387
  • Main Publications: 405
  • Main Publications: 423
  • L 425
  • M 486
  • Main Publications: 491
  • Main Publications: 498
  • Main Publications: 540
  • N 558
  • Main Publications: 577
  • O 583
  • P 593
  • Main Publications: 605
  • Main Publications: 614
  • Main Publications: 626
  • Q 640
  • R 644
  • Main Publications: 657
  • S 690
  • Main Publications: 701
  • Main Publications: 704
  • T 764
  • U 795
  • V 800
  • W 817
  • Main Publications: 827
  • Main Publications: 833
  • Main Publications: 851
  • X 853
  • Y 857
  • Z 861
  • Guide to Schools and Movements 876
  • Bibliography 893
  • Nationality Index 903
  • Category Index 909
  • Index of Interests 918
  • Index of Influences 925
  • Index of People 936
  • Index of Subjects 945


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