Biographical Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Philosophers

By Stuart Brown; Diané Collinson et al. | Go to book overview


Vaihinger, Hans

German, b: 25 September 1852, Nehren. d: 17 December 1933, Halle, Germany. Cat: 'As-If philosopher; metaphysician; Kant philologist. Educ: Theology, Philosophy and Classics at Tübingen, Leipzig and Berlin. Infls: Hermann Avenarius, Eduard von Hartmann, Friedrich A. Lange and Friedrich Nietzsche. Appts: Lecturer in Strasbourg; Professor at Halle.

Main publications:
(1876) Hartmann, Dühring und Lange, Iserlohn: Baedeker.
(1881-92) Kommentar zu Kant s Kritik der reinen Vernunft 2 vols, Stuttgart: W. Spemann.
(1902) Nietzsche als Philosoph, Berlin: Reuther & Reichard.
(1911) Die Philosophie des Als Ob, Leipzig: Meiner (English translation, The Philosophy of As If, trans. C.K. Ogden, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul).
(1924) Pessimismus und Optimismus, Leipzig: Rothschild.

Secondary literature:
Del-Negro, Walter (1934) 'Hans Vaihingers philosophisches Werk mit besonderer Berücksichtigung seiner Kantforschung', Kant-Studien 39:316-327.
Von Noorden, H. (1953) 'Der Wahrheitsbegriff in Vaihinger's Philosophie des Als Obs', Zeitschrift für philosophische Forschung 8.

Vaihinger is perhaps best known for his fictionalism, or his philosophy of'as if. He endorsed the principle that an 'idea whose theoretical untruth or incorrectness, and therewith its falsity, is admitted, is not for that reason practically valueless and useless; for such an idea, in spite of its theoretical nullity, may have great practical importance'. Thought was, he believed, always in the service of the biological struggle for existence. It was therefore a merely biological function for him. Yet thought has for him a tendency to formulate problems which it cannot possibly solve, such as the question of the meaning of life. This problem cannot be answered (because it is a meaningless question). We can only show its psychological sources. Yet, some of the answers that have been given to this question, while clearly false, are just as clearly quite useful. Thus the fiction of a higher spirit that created and rules the world has been quite satisfying to many. Even mathematics and science rely on fictions that are self-contradictory (such as the concepts of the infinitely small and the atom). They are employed because they have proved themselves to be eminently fruitful. Moral values and ideals especially serve 'life'. Even if they are irrational, we should employ them. We must act 'as if they were true because they have biological utility.

Vaihinger himself contrasted his principle with the pragmatic principle that truth in theory is proved by what is useful in practice, admitting that there is a similarity in practice, although the two are diametrically opposed in principle. Vaihinger was most deeply influenced by the pessimism, irrationalism, and voluntarism in Schopenhauer, although he also cites Hume and John Stuart Mill as important for his early development. When he got to know Nietzsche's works relatively late in life (1898), he found him to be a kindred spirit and fully endorsed his works. Vaihinger rejected the labels of 'scepticism' and 'agnosticism' for his theory, claiming that 'relativism' would be a more appropriate term for it. Vaihinger's work as a Kant scholar was perhaps more important than his fictionalism. His commentary on Kant's Critique of Pure Reason is still a standard work of Kant scholarship. His theory of the composition of the Prolegomena (Blattversetzungshypothese) is to-day accepted as essentially correct by most, and his 'patchwork theory' of the first Critique has been found compelling by Norman Kemp Smith and others. As a cofounder of both the Kant Society and of Kant-Studien, he had a great influence on the direction it took towards neo-Kantianism. Another journal he founded, the Annalen der Philosophie, was more concerned with the spread of his own fictionalism.



Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Cite this page

Cited page

Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Biographical Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Philosophers
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction vii
  • List of Abbreviated Sources xvi
  • List of Schools and Movements xxi
  • A 1
  • Main Publications: 19
  • Main Publications: 22
  • Main Publications: 24
  • Main Publications: 25
  • Main Publications: 29
  • B 41
  • Main Publications: 97
  • C - Cabral, Amilcar Lopes 119
  • Main Publications: 148
  • D 167
  • E 209
  • F 222
  • G 261
  • H 296
  • Main Publications: 323
  • Main Publications: 330
  • I 361
  • Main Publications: 365
  • J 370
  • Main Publications: 385
  • K 387
  • Main Publications: 405
  • Main Publications: 423
  • L 425
  • M 486
  • Main Publications: 491
  • Main Publications: 498
  • Main Publications: 540
  • N 558
  • Main Publications: 577
  • O 583
  • P 593
  • Main Publications: 605
  • Main Publications: 614
  • Main Publications: 626
  • Q 640
  • R 644
  • Main Publications: 657
  • S 690
  • Main Publications: 701
  • Main Publications: 704
  • T 764
  • U 795
  • V 800
  • W 817
  • Main Publications: 827
  • Main Publications: 833
  • Main Publications: 851
  • X 853
  • Y 857
  • Z 861
  • Guide to Schools and Movements 876
  • Bibliography 893
  • Nationality Index 903
  • Category Index 909
  • Index of Interests 918
  • Index of Influences 925
  • Index of People 936
  • Index of Subjects 945


Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 947

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search


    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.