Mexican, b: 30 May 1917, San José, Costa Rica (of Lebanese parents). Mexican citizen 1949. Cat: Historian of ideas. Educ: MA, Philosophy, Unversidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, 1949, doctorate in 1954; postgraduate study in Paris, Algiers and Lebanon. Appts: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico.
In addition to her professorial duties Yamuni earned a medical degree in 1973. She is currently a full-time Professor of Philosophy and a practising physician. She is a leading authority on the thought of one of the most influential figures in twentieth-century philosophy in Mexico, José Gaos (1900-69), with whom she studied. Yamuni's work on Gaos analyses his role as a 'transplanted' Spanish philosopher who was exiled after the fall of Republican Spain, his concept of the person, his interpretation of the history of philosophy and his metaphysics. In addition to her books Yamuni has published more than forty articles on philosophy, the role of women in society and the Arab world.
Chinese, b: 1854, Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China. d: 1921, Fuzhou. Cat: Philosophy translator and commentator. Ints: Social thought; logic. Educ: Studied at School of Navigation, Majiang Naval Academy, Fuzhou; Greenwich Naval College (1877-9). Infls: Herbert Spencer, Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill. Appts: Chancellor, Beiyang Naval Academy, Tianjin; Director of Translation Bureau, Imperial University, Beijing; Chief Editor, Bureau of Terminology; Chancellor, University of Beijing.
Translations with notes and commentaries of:
After training in English at Naval College in Fuzhou, Yen was sent to Greenwich Naval College in England, where he supplemented his naval studies with readings in sociology, economics, politics and philosophy to discover the source of Western power. Under Spencer's influence, he argued that Social Darwinism provided the best framework for understanding Western strength and for shaping Chinese policy to achieve the wealth and power needed to overcome foreign dominance. Although he saw democratic politics as necessary to his programme, his evolutionary